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Rooivalk Attack Helicopter, south africa

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 15, 2009

Rooivalk Attack Helicopter


Key Data:

Pilot, weapon systems officer
Anti-armour, ground suppression, anti-helicopter, ferry, reconnaissance and counter-insurgency


Main Rotor to Tail Rotor
Main Rotor Diameter
Overall Height


Maximum Take-Off Weight
Minimum Operating Weight
Maximum Internal Fuel


2 x Makila 1K2
Twin-Engine Take-Off Rating
Single-Engine, Super Continence


Fast Cruise Speed
Maximum Sideways Speed
Maximum Rate of Climb, Twin-Engine Operation
Maximum Rate of Climb, Single-Engine Operation
Maximum Range, Internal Fuel
Maximum Range, External Fuel
Maximum Hover Ceiling (OGE) Out-of-Ground Effect
Maximum Hover Ceiling (IGE) In-Ground Effect
Excess Hover Power margin OGE, Sea-Level Anti-Tank Mission


8 or 16 anti-tank missiles, 7in SAL missile or HOT3
Air-to-air missiles, infrared guidance
38 or 76 70mm unguided rockets, variation of warheads
20mm F2 cannon, high-velocity ammunition (900 rounds)
Sighting Systems
Dual Helmet-Mounted Sight and Display (HMSD)
Stabilised nose-mounted sight with FLIR, TV, laser rangefinder, laser designator and autotracking
Total mission modes
Target acquisition
Flight control
Health and usage monitoring
Threat detection and control
Flight and fuel


The Rooivalk is a latest-generation attack helicopter from Denel Aviation of South Africa. The South African Air Force ordered 12 Rooivalk AH-2As, the first of which entered service in July 1999. The helicopters form part of No. 16 Squadron at Bloemspruit Air Force Base (near Bloemfontein).

The helicopters have been delivered and were to be fitted with the Mokopa ZT-6 anti-tank missile. A production order for the Mokopa was placed in March 2004. Delays with the development of the missile mean that it is unlikely to be integrated on the Rooivalk.

The helicopter is planned to achieve initial operational capability in late 2009 but full capability with an anti-tank missile is not currently planned.

Rooivalk cockpit

The cockpits are in stepped tandem configuration. The weapon systems officer (WSO) is seated in the front cockpit and the pilot is seated in the cockpit above and behind the WSO. The cockpits, which are fitted with crashworthy seats and are armour-protected, are equipped with hands-on collective And stick (HOCAS) controls.

A Thales Avionics TopOwl helmet-mounted sight display (HMSD) provides the crew with a head-up display of information for nap-of-the-earth flight (NOE). TopOwl incorporates an integrated measurement system for directing an articulated weapon such as the cannon, or air-to-air missile seeker heads. It has an integrated Gen IV image intensifier and FLIR capability and provides transition from day to night use at the push of a button.

The Rooivalk has a crash-resistant structure and is designed for stealth with low radar, visual, infrared and acoustic signatures.


The Rooivalk carries a comprehensive range of weaponry selected for the mission requirement, ranging from anti-armour and anti-helicopter missions to ground suppression and ferry missions. The aircraft can engage multiple targets at short and long range, utilising the nose-mounted cannon and a range of underwing-mounted munitions.

The 20mm, F2 dual-feed, gas-operated cannon fires high-speed (1,100m/s) ammunition at a firing rate of 740 rounds a minute. Two ammunition bins hold up to 700 rounds of ready-to-fire ammunition. The slew rate of the cannon is 90° a second. The cannon is chin-mounted on the helicopter.

The Rooivalk was to be armed with the Mokopa long-range anti-armour missile developed by the Kentron Division of Denel. Mokopa has a semi-active laser seeker head and is equipped with a tandem warhead. Range is over 8.5km. Rooivalk can also fire Hellfire or HOT 3 missiles.

“The Rooivalk is armed with the Mokopa long-range anti-armour missile.”

Rooivalk can carry four air-to-air missiles such as the Denel Aerospace Systems V3C Darter or MBDA (formerly Matra BAe Dynamics) Mistral.

The V3C Darter has an infrared seeker and a helmet-mounted sight for target designation. The Mistral, which has been selected by the South African Air Force, has an infrared seeker and range of up to 6km.

Rooivalk is equipped to fire 70mm folding-fin aerial rockets (FFAR), from the company Forges de Zeebrugge of Belgium, with a range of warheads, selectable according to the type of targets being engaged.


The Rooivalk’s electronic warfare suite is the fully integrated helicopter electronic warfare self-protection suite (HEWSPS), incorporating radar warning, laser warning and countermeasures dispensing system. The system is flight-line programmable and in-flight adaptable to match the threat library with the mission’s area of operation.

The radar warner features low-effective radiated power (ERP) / pulse Doppler radar detection beyond radar detection range, ultra broadband frequency coverage, high pulse density handling and internal instantaneous frequency measurement.

The laser warner provides broadband laser frequency coverage to detect and display rangefinding, designating and missile guidance laser threats.

The countermeasures dispensing system, which is operated in manual, semi-automatic or fully automatic mode, is charged with chaff and flare cartridges.

Fire control and observation

Target detection, acquisition and tracking are carried out using the nose-mounted stabilised sight, TDATS. The TDATS sight is equipped with a low-level television sensor, Forward-looking infrared (FLIR), autotracker, laser rangefinder and laser designator.

“The Rooivalk has a crash-resistant structure.”

Navigation and communications

The Rooivalk is equipped with an advanced navigation suite including Doppler radar velocity sensor, Thales Avionics eight-channel global positioning system, heading sensor unit and an air data unit.

The communications suite consists of two VHF/UHF transceivers with FM, AM and digital speech processing, one HF radio with frequency hopping and secure voice and data channels, and an IFF transponder.


Posted in Aerocraft | Leave a Comment »

Tejas Light Combat Supersonic Fighter

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 15, 2009

Tejas Light Combat Supersonic Fighter





Empty Weight
Approximate Take-Off Weight
External Payload
More than 4,000kg


Prototype Aircraft
1 x GE F404-GE-F2J3 turbofan engine with afterburn
Production Aircraft
1 x GE F404-GE-IN20 turbofan engine, rated at 85kN


Maximum Speed
Mach 1.8
Maximum Altitude
+9g to –3.5g


Burst Firing Rate
50 rounds a second
Muzzle Velocity


The Tejas single-seat, single-engine, lightweight, high-agility supersonic fighter aircraft has been undergoing flight trials in preparation for operational clearance, and by mid 2005 had flown over 400 flights up to speeds of Mach 1.4. The Tejas light combat aircraft design and development programme is being led by the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) of the Indian Department of Defence with Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) as the prime industrial contractor.

The first LCA Demonstrator I aircraft made a maiden flight in January 2001. The LCA Demonstrator II first flew in June 2002. The second prototype vehicle (PV-II) made a maiden flight in December 2005 and the third in December 2006. The Indian government approved limited series production of 20 Tejas for the Air Force in April 2006.

First flight of the production aircraft was in April 2007. Tejas is planned to achieve initial operating capability (IOC) in 2008 and enter service in 2011. The trainer variant is scheduled for first flight in 2009.

“Tejas is a single-seat, single-engine, lightweight, high-agility supersonic fighter aircraft.”

Tejas, the smallest lightweight, multirole, single-engined tactical fighter aircraft in the world, is being developed as a single seat fighter aircraft for the Indian Air Force and also as a two-seat training aircraft. In November 2008, the Indian Air Force confirmed a requirement for 140 Tejas aircraft to equip seven squadrons.

The design of a carrier-borne Tejas in single-seat and two-seat versions with a modified nose, strengthened landing gear and an arrestor hook was granted approval in 1999. The carrier variant has retractable canards and adjustable vortex control.

The development programme for the carrier-borne versions was agreed by the Indian government in 2002 and the first flights of two prototype aircraft are scheduled for late 2009. The carrier variant may replace the fleet of Sea Harriers.

The Indian Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) is carrying out a conceptual design study of the ADA medium combat aircraft, which will be an advanced, stealthy version of the Tejas, to replace the Indian Air Force Jaguar and Mirage 2000 fleet. The medium combat aircraft has two engines with fully vectoring nozzles and no vertical or horizontal tail.

Delta planform design

The aircraft is of delta planform design with shoulder-mounted delta wings. The aircraft has a fin but no horizontal tail. Lightweight materials including aluminium and lithium alloys, titanium alloys and carbon composites have been used in the construction. The wing structure includes composite spares and ribs with a carbon fibre-reinforced plastic skin.

The National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), based in Bangalore, has designed and is responsible for the manufacture of the fin and the rudder and the construction of the aircraft fuselage.

Tejas cockpit

The aircraft is fitted with a night vision compatible glass cockpit with Martin Baker (UK) zero-zero ejection seats.

The cockpit has two 76mm×76mm colour liquid crystal multi-function displays developed by Bharat Electronics, a head up display developed by the Indian government-owned Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIO) in Chandigarh, a liquid crystal return-to-home-base panel and keyboard. The pilot also has a helmet-mounted display.

“Tejas is the smallest lightweight, multi-role, single-engine tactical fighter aircraft in the world.”

The aircraft has a quadruplex fly-by-wire digital automatic flight control. The navigation suite includes Sagem SIGMA 95N ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system with an integrated global positioning system.

The communications suite includes VHF to UHF radio communications with built-in counter-countermeasures, air-to-air and air-to-ground data links and a HAL information friend-or-foe interrogator. The cockpit is fitted with an environmental control system developed by Spectrum Infotech of Bangalore. The avionics suite has an integrated utility health-monitoring system.

Fighter weapons

The aircraft has eight external hardpoints to carry stores, with three under each wing, one on the centre fuselage and one installed under the air intake on the port side. A 23mm twin barrelled GSh-23 gun with a burst firing rate of 50 rounds a second and muzzle velocity of 715m a second is installed in a blister fairing under the starboard air intake.

The aircraft can be armed with air-to-air, air-to-ground and anti-ship missiles, precision-guided munitions, rockets and bombs. Electronic warfare, targeting, surveillance, reconnaissance or training pods can be carried on the hardpoints. Drop tanks can also be carried.

In October 2007, the Tejas successfully test-fired the R-73 air-to-air missile. The Vympel R-73 (Nato codename AA-11 Archer ) missile is an all-aspect short-range missile with cooled infrared homing. The missile can intercept targets at altitudes between 0.02km and 20km, g-load to 12g, and with target speeds of up to 2,500km/h.


The aircraft’s electronic warfare suite, developed by the Advanced Systems Integration and Evaluation Organisation (ASIEO) of Bangalore, includes a radar warning receiver and jammer, laser warner, missile approach warner, and chaff and flare dispenser.


The Electronics Research and Development Establishment and HAL have jointly developed the aircraft’s multi-mode radar. The radar has multiple target search and track-while-scan and ground-mapping modes of operation. The radar incorporates pulse Doppler radar with Doppler beam shaping, moving target indication and look-up / look-down capability. The radar is mounted in a Kevlar radome.

Turbofan engines

The prototype development aircraft are fitted with General Electric F404-GE-F2J3 turbofan engines with afterburn. Production aircraft will be fitted with one General Electric 85kN F404-GE-IN20 turbofan engine with full authority digital engine control. HAL placed an order for 24 F404-GE-IN20 engines in February 2007.

“Tejas can be armed with air-to-air, air-to-ground and anti-ship missiles, precision-guided munitions, rockets and bombs.”

LSP-2 (limited series production 2) will be the first aircraft to be fitted with the engine. Flight trials with the production engine began in June 2008.

It was planned that a new turbofan engine, the GTX-35VS Kaveri, under development by Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE), would be fitted to the production aircraft, but delays in development led to the purchase of the General Electric engines. Snecma-Larzac has been chosen as the industrial partner in the engine development.

The Kaveri engine develops 52kN dry power and 80.5kN with afterburn. The aircraft will use multi-axis thrust vectoring nozzles. The engine has Y-duct air intakes.

The aircraft has wing and fuselage tanks and an in-flight refuelling probe on the front starboard side. Drop tanks with a capacity up to 4,000l, can be carried on the inner and mid-board wing and fuselage centreline hardpoints.

The aircraft is fitted with a HAL gas turbine starter unit model GTSU-110.

Posted in Aircrafts of India | Leave a Comment »

HJT-36 Sitara Intermediate Jet Trainer

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 15, 2009






Maximum Take-Off Weight
Take-Off Weight, No External Payload
External Payload


Prototype Aircraft
Snecma Larsac 04-H20, rated 14.12kN
Series Production Aircraft
Saturn AL-55, rated 16.68kN
1,150l, 917kg


+7g to –2.5g
Maximum Operating Speed
960km/h, Mach 0.8
Maximum Level Speed
700km/h, Mach 0.58
Maximum Dive Speed
824km.h, Mach 0.69
Service Ceiling
3 hours


The intermediate jet trainer, designated HJT-36, is known in India as the Sitara (‘Star’). Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) started design work on the intermediate jet trainer in 1997. The concept was initially developed as a successor to the successful Kiran trainer for the Indian Air Force and Navy. HAL was awarded a contract in 1999 by the government of the Republic of India for the completion of development, testing and certification of two prototype IJT aircraft.

In February 2003, a contract for an initial 16 trainers for the Indian Air Force was placed. An Indian Air Force demand for 200 to 250 aircraft is envisaged with a market potential for higher numbers. Two prototype aircraft have been built. Over 280 flights have been completed by the aircraft. The HJT-36 is scheduled to enter service with the Indian Air Force in 2010.

Construction of the first prototype, the S3466, started in 2002 and it completed its first flight in March 2003. The second prototype aircraft, the S3474, completed its first flight in March 2004. The HJT-36 took part in the air display at Farnborough International Air Show in 2006. At the Aero-India air show in February 2007 in Bangalore, whilst taking part in the air display, the first prototype crashed on the runway when taking off.

The aircraft provides high-speed training for pilots entering level II training. The maximum operating speed is Mach 0.8 and the g-limits are from +7g to –2.5g. The service ceiling for the trainer is 12,000m (39,370ft).

HJT-36 design

The aircraft is of light alloy and composite construction, using a conventional low wing design with a sweptback wing of 9.8m span and 18° leading edge sweepback.

About a quarter of the aircraft’s line replaceable units are common with the HAL Tejas trainer aircraft.

The aircraft is fitted with hydraulically retractable tricycle-type landing gear. The single-wheeled main units retract inward and the twin nose wheel unit retracts forward.

Training cockpit

The cockpit uses a conventional tandem two-seat configuration with the trainee pilot forward and the instructor in the raised seat to the rear. The single-piece canopy gives the pilots good, all-round vision. The seats are lightweight zero-zero ejection seats, model K-36LT manufactured by Zvesda. The pilots have both conventional and manual flight controls.

“The HJT-36 is scheduled to enter service with the Indian Air Force in 2008.”

The aircraft has a full glass cockpit and digital avionics. The cockpit layout conforms to the style of current-generation combat aircraft.

Smiths Aerospace was contracted to supply the integrated avionics system, which includes open systems architecture mission computer, an attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) and air data computers.

The cockpits are equipped with active matrix liquid crystal displays supplied by Thales. The instructor’s station in the rear cockpit has a data entry display panel.

The avionics suite includes a head-up display and head-up display repeater unit supplied by Elop. The aircraft has cockpit communications and dual VHF and UHF communications.

HJT-36 weapons

The aircraft has five external hardpoints for carrying weapon systems. There is one centreline hardpoint under the fuselage and two weapon pylons under each wing for carrying rocket and gun pods and bombs. The maximum external payload is 1,000kg.

Turbofan engine

The ITJ engine is installed in the rear section of the fuselage and fitted with a bifurcated air intake. The aircraft carries 1,150l, 917kg of usable fuel in the fuselage and wing tanks.

The prototype aircraft are powered by a Snecma Larzac 04-H-20 turbofan non-afterburning engine developing 14.12kN.

“Two prototype HJT-36 Sitara aircraft have been built.”

In the summer of 2004, Hindustan Aeronautics announced the selection of the Saturn AL-55 turbofan engine rated at 16.68kN for the production series intermediate jet trainer. The AL-55 engine is being developed by NPO Saturn and produced at the Ufa Engineering Building Association (UMPO) in Russia.

An agreement between the governments of India and Russia for the licensed production of the AL-55I engine in India was reached in August 2005. The agreement included assistance in setting up the AL-55I production facilities at HAL’s aeroengineering centre at Koraput. The first AL-55I engine was delivered in June 2008.

The aircraft is fitted with a 9kW starter generator and two nickel cadmium 43Ah batteries.

Posted in Aircrafts of India | Leave a Comment »

CAEW – Conformal Airborne Early Warning Aircraft

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 15, 2009






2 × Rolls-Royce BR710C4-11 turbofan engines
Engine Power


Maximum Speed (Mmo)
Mach 0.885
9 hours at mission radius of 185km, altitude 12,500m
Range at Mach 0.80

Mission Systems:

Mission Stations
6 × multi-purpose operator stations
CAEW and Control System
EL/W-2085 Radar
1-2 GHz and 2- 4GHz
Satellite Communications
Satcoms Frequency Band
Ku band, 12.5GHz-18GHz


The Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) conformal airborne early warning and control (CAEW) aircraft was first unveiled in public at the UK’s 2008 Farnborough Air Show. The prime contractor, system developer and system integrator for the CAEW is Elta Systems Ltd, a subsidiary of IAI.

The CAEW aircraft is based on the G550 airframe from Gulfstream Aerospace of the USA. The operationally proven G550 CAEW aircraft is the third generation of airborne early warning and control systems developed by IAI Elta since the mid-1980s.

Gulfstream was awarded a contract for four (plus two options) G550 modified aircraft in August 2003. First flight of the modified aircraft was in May 2006 and it was delivered to Elta for the installation of the mission systems in September 2006. The first and second CAEW aircraft were delivered to the Israel Air Force in February and May 2008 and since then have been in operational use.

“The CAEW provides improved performance in terms of higher operating altitude, longer range and increased time on station.”

The Singapore Air Force has also ordered a number of CAEW aircraft to be delivered during 2009 and 2010.

The CAEW provides improved performance in terms of higher operating altitude, longer range and increased time on station. The main AEW performance advantages result from the capability to point the radar beams in any direction in space at any time, with the beam’s parameters controlled by the radar computer. The CAEW aircraft is based on the Gulfstream G550 airframe, which is an upgraded variant of the Gulfstream V-SP with improved aerodynamic performance. The aircraft is manufactured at the Gulfstream business jet production centre in Savannah, Georgia, USA and transferred to IAI Elta Systems Ltd in Ashdod, Israel.

Compared to the original G550, the CAEW redesigned aircraft has an increased zero-fuel weight, a modified structure, additional cabling, three (instead of one) power generators and a liquid cooling system to accommodate the mission equipment. One particular specification is the aircraft’s low drag aerodynamic profile.

IAI’s Bedek Aviation is contracted to provide the maintenance and logistic support for the Israeli CAEW aircraft.

CAEW cockpit

The baseline G550 aircraft uses a Honeywell Primus Epic avionics suite and the two-man flight deck has a Gulfstream PlaneView cockpit. The CAEW flight deck provides the pilot with real-time 360°, three-dimensional AEW information.

Mission systems

The AEW system has six multi-purpose, Windows-based, operator stations with 24in colour monitors that are installed in the rear half of the main cabin. The forward section of the main cabin behind the cockpit accommodates the electronics.

The Elta AEW system provides rapid target acquisition and target information with total 360° coverage. Avoiding host aircraft obstruction is achieved by using the placement of a number of conformal antennae combined with dynamic beam allocation to the targets. The multiple conformal antennae provide the coverage without the need for a large mushroom-shaped radar system installed on comparable aircraft.

The aircraft is equipped with the Elta EL/W-2085 AEW system which includes a phased array airborne early warning radar, an identification friend or foe system, electronic support measures (ESM), electronic intelligence (ELINT) and communications intelligence (COMINT) systems.

The system is highly automated and uses advanced multi-sensor data fusion techniques to cross-correlate data generated by all four sensors – the radar, IFF, ESM / ELINT and CSM / COMINT. The data is combined with an automatically initiated active search by one sensor for specific targets that have been detected by other sensors.

“The Elta AEW system provides rapid target acquisition and target information with total 360° coverage.”

The phased array airborne early warning radar, an active electronic steering array (AESA), operates in L and S bands (1GHz to 2GHz and 2GHz to 4GHz) and provides 360° azimuthal coverage. The system has high-accuracy three-dimensional tracking, low false-alarm rate, flexible and high target revisit time, electronic counter-countermeasures and programmable search and track modes of operation.

The modes of operation include track initiation, extended detection range mode with long dwell time, and target verification. When a target has been identified as a priority the radar switches to a high scan rate tracking mode with optimised beam to target characteristics.

The forward-facing hemisphere radar array and the weather radar are mounted in the nose radome. The lateral arrays are housed in conformal radomes along the sides of the forward fuselage. The radome located on the tailcone houses the aft facing hemispherical array.

The information friend or foe system uses the radar’s receive / transmit modules and antennae and provides target interrogation, decoding, target detection, location and target tracking.

The electronic support measures and electronic intelligence systems use multiple narrow and wideband receivers. The ESM / ELINT also provides the radar warning receiver function and supports the aircraft’s self-protection system. The antenna pods are mounted under the wingtips. An electronic support measures antenna is mounted in a fairing above the nose cone which houses the weather radar. The direction finding function uses differential time of arrival.

The automated communications intelligence system covers the high (HF) to very-high (VHF) frequency bands from 3MHz to 3GHz.


The aircraft’s communications suite provides network-centric operations capability and is interoperable with air force, navy and ground force assets and includes U/VHF, HF, satellite communications, voice over internet protocol (VoIP), secure voice, secure data link and intercom.

“The CAEW aircraft is powered by two Rolls-Royce BR710C4-11 turbofan engines.”

The aircraft is fitted with a robust jam-resistant full duplex EL/K-189 satellite communications and datalink. The satellite communications operates at Ku band, 12.5GHz to 18GHz. The satellite antenna dish and one planar array are housed in the vertical tail surface top fairing and another planar array is housed in a ventral blister radome. The antennae are dual axis stabilised with pointing capability. The carrier link can provide voice, data and compressed video.

The aircraft can be fitted with the data link specified by the customer country.

CAEW countermeasures

The aircraft is fitted with an integrated self protection suite with 360° radar warning receiver (RWR), missile approach warning system (MAWS), chaff and flare decoy dispensers and directed infrared countermeasures (DIRCM).


The aircraft is powered by two Rolls-Royce BR710C4-11 turbofan engines rated at 68.4kN and fitted with full authority digital engine control (FADEC). The engines are fitted at the rear of the fuselage. The integral wing tanks have a fuel capacity of 23,400l and the fuel system is equipped with an automatic fuel distribution system to accommodate the changing fuel load during flight.

The aircraft is equipped with a Hamilton Sundstrand electrical power generation system and the CAEW aircraft also has power generators mounted on the engines providing 240kW of power.

Gulfstream was responsible for the design and supply of the liquid cooling system to accommodate the high power consumption of the airborne electronics.

Posted in Aircrafts of Israel | Leave a Comment »

Yak-130 Combat Trainer

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 15, 2009




Length, Development Model
Length, Production Model
Wing Area
Wing Aspect Ratio


Empty Weight
Typical Training Configuration Weight
Maximum Take-Off Weight
Weapon Payload
Internal Fuel


Type (Prototype)
2 x V-2S turbofan engines
Thrust (Prototype)
2,200kg each
Type (Production Aircraft)
2 x AI-222-25 turbofan engines
Thrust (Production Aircraft)
2,500kg each


Maximum Level Speed
Service Ceiling
Range With Internal Fuel
Sustained G-limit at Mach 0.8
+8g to -3g
Landing Speed
Landing Run
Take-Off Speed
Take-Off Run
Service Life
30 years
Flight Hours
10,000 extendable to 15,000
20,000 landings


The Yak-130 combat trainer was selected as the winner of the trainer competition of the Voyenno Vozdushnyye Sily, Russian Federation Air Force, in April 2002. The aircraft is also being actively marketed for export by Yakovlev, the Irkut company, and by Rosoboronexport.

The Russian Air Force has a future requirement for 300 Yak-130 aircraft that can be deployed as a light strike aircraft or as a trainer for a range of fourth or fifth-generation fighters. An order has been placed for the first 12 aircraft to replace aging Aero Vodochody L-39 Albatros. The aircraft will enter service in the Russian Federation Air Force at the military pilot training academy in Krasnodar.

The production line for the aircraft at the Aviation Plant Sokol in Nizhny Novgorod, known as NAZ Sokol, is fully operational and the roll out of the first production series aircraft took place in May 2003. A series of flight tests of the serial production aircraft was started in April 2004 and will be completed in early 2006.

The Russian Air Force ordered official testing in May 2005. The full trials of the advanced combat trainer, including spin and combat tactics trials, are underway and are due to be completed by the end of 2008 prior to delivery of the first two production aircraft to the Russian Air Force.

In March 2006, it was announced that Algeria had placed an order for 16 Yak-130 trainers. Deliveries are due to commence in 2009.

Yak-130 development

A joint programme for trainer development between Yakovlev of Russia and Aermacchi of Italy began in 1993 and the Yak / AEM-130D demonstrator first flew in 1996. In 1999, the partnership was dissolved and the Yakovlev Yak-130 and the Aermacchi M346 became separate programmes.

By the second quarter of 2003, the Yak-130 prototype had successfully completed 450 flights, including high-manoeuvrability flight demonstrations such as a controlled angle of attack of 42°.

The Yak-130 has a maximum g-loading of +8g to -3g and is capable of executing the flight manoeuvres specific to current operational and developmental combat aircraft, including Su-30, MiG-29, Mirage, F-15, F-16, Eurofighter, F-22 and F-35.

Other variants of the Yak-130 being considered include a navalised carrier-based trainer aircraft, a lightweight reconnaissance aircraft and an unmanned strike aircraft.


The Yak-130 production aircraft is slightly different from the Yak-130D demonstrator, with lower weight, a more rounded nose to accommodate a radar, a shorter fuselage length and a lower wing area.

“The Yak-130 production aircraft is slightly different from the Yak-130D demonstrator.”

The Yak-130 is of classical swept-wing and empennage monoplane design and light alloy construction with carbon-fibre control surfaces. Kevlar armour protection is fitted to the engines, cockpit and avionics compartment.

The moderately swept high-lift wing and the all-moving low-mounted tail plane allow the pilot to choose high angles of attack. For short airfield performance the aircraft is equipped with leading edge slats and three-position Fowler flaps.

The Fowler flaps are split flaps which move rearward and then downward on tracks to give a large increase in lift and high lift and drag for landing manoeuvres. The airframe is designed for a 30-year service life with 10,000 hours flying time or 20,000 landings.


The aircraft has an air-conditioned and pressurised two-seat tandem cockpit fitted with NPO Zvezda K-36LT3.5 zero-zero ejection seats. The pilots have all-round view through a blister canopy. The forward pilot has a view over the nose to -16°. The rear pilot has a view to -6°.

The production Yak-130 is the first Russian aircraft with an all-digital avionics suite. The avionics meets Mil Standard 1553 and can be adapted to the customer’s requirements.

The aircraft has an all-glass cockpit. Both pilot positions are night vision goggle compatible and equipped with three multi-function 6in x 8in colour liquid crystal displays. The pilot in the forward cockpit can use the helmet-mounted sight for target designation. The cockpit is fitted with an MS internal and external communication and voice warning system supplied by AA.S. Popov GZAS joint stock company.

The Avionica fly-by-wire flight control system is used to adjust the stability and controllability characteristics and flight safety systems to simulate a number of aircraft such as the MiG-29, Su-27, Su-30, F-15, F-16, F-18, Mirage 2000, Rafale, Typhoon and future fighters such as the F-35.

The pilot selects the software model of the simulated aircraft’s control system on the Yak-130 onboard computer. The pilot can select the model during flight. The system can be forgiving to allow cadet pilots the easy acquisition of piloting skills.

The open architecture avionics suite includes two computers and a three-channel information exchange multiplexer. The navigation suite includes laser gyroscopes and GLONASS / NAVSTAR global positioning.

“The Yak-130 combat trainer is fitted with a 30mm GSh-301 cannon or a podded GSh-23 cannon installed under the fuselage.”


The Yak-130 combat trainer can simulate the tactics of different combat aircraft. There is one centreline fuselage hardpoint and the number of wing hardpoints for the suspension of weapons payloads has been increased to eight with six underwing and two wingtip points, increasing the combat payload weight to 3,000kg.

The aircraft can carry weapons, suspended fuel tanks, reconnaissance pods and a range of electronic warfare pods including radar jammers and infrared countermeasures.

An open architecture avionics suite installed on the Yak-130 allows a wide range of western weapon systems and guided missiles to be integrated including the AIM-9L Sidewinder, Magic 2 and the AGM-65 Maverick.

Weapons fits include the Vikhr laser-guided missile, R-73 infrared-guided air-to-air missiles (Nato designation AA-11 Archer) and the Kh-25 ML (Nato designation AS-10 Karen) air-to-surface laser-guided missile. A Platan electro-optical guidance pod is installed under the fuselage for deployment of the KAB-500Kr guided bomb.

The aircraft is fitted with a 30mm GSh-301 cannon or a podded GSh-23 cannon installed under the fuselage. It can also deploy unguided B-8M and B-18 rockets, 250kg and 50kg bombs and cluster bombs.


The Yak-130 is fitted with the 8GHz to 12.5GHz Osa or Oca (Wasp) radar developed by NIIP Zhukovsky. The radar has the capacity to track eight airborne targets simultaneously, simultaneously engage four targets at all angles and simultaneously track two ground targets. The detection range against 5m² cross section targets is 40km in the rear direction and 85km in the forward direction. The lock-on range for operation in automatic tracking mode is 65km.

The radar, which has adaptive waveforms and sidelobes, has a surface mapping mode which includes image freezing and zooming on areas of interest.

An alternative radar fit is the Kopyo (Spear) radar. The aircraft can also be fitted with a podded Platan (Palm Tree) infrared search and track targeting system.


The electronic warfare suite includes a chaff and flare dispenser, a radar warning receiver and active jammers.


The aircraft has a high thrust-to-weight ratio of about 0.85. The demonstrator is powered by two Slovakian Povazske Strojarne DV-2SM turbofan engines, each rated at 2,200kg thrust.

“The Yak-130 combat trainer’s electronic warfare suite includes a chaff and flare dispenser, a radar warning receiver and active jammers.”

Production aircraft are fitted with two powerful high-economy AI-222-25 turbofan engines, each rated at 2,500kg thrust and developed under a Russian and Ukrainian program by Motor Sich, Zaporozh’e Progress Design Bureau and the Moscow Salyut Motor Building Production Enterprise. The export variant of the Yak-130 can be fitted with the DV-2SM engine.

The internal fuel tanks, comprising two wing tanks and a centre fuselage tank, carry up to 1,750kg of fuel. With two suspended fuel tanks (each 450l) the maximum total fuel load is 2,650kg. The aircraft is fitted with single point pressure or optional gravity refuelling. The aircraft can be fitted with an in-flight refuelling probe.

The export variant of the Yak-130 can be fitted with the DV-2SM engine.

According to the customer country’s requirement, the aircraft can be fitted with an in-flight refuelling probe.

Posted in Aircrafts of Russia | Leave a Comment »

Tu-95 Bear Strategic Bomber

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 14, 2009



Tu 95




Fuselage Diameter


Empty Weight
Fuel Weight


4 x NK-12MP turboprop
11,033kW each


Maximum Speed at 25,000ft
Cruise Speed
Service Ceiling
Unrefuelled Combat Radius


6 x Kh-55 nuclear ALCM, 14 x Kh-SD anti-ship missiles or eight conventionally armed Kh-101 ALCM
1 x twin-barrelled GSh-23L cannon


The Tupolev Tu-95 has been built in many Tu-95 and Tu-142 variants but was originally built as a strategic, intercontinental heavy-payload bomber aircraft. The aircraft is currently in service in both the Russian Air Force Naval Aviation and Russian Air Force Air Army units, and with the Indian Air Force. The Tu-95s were designed and built at the Tupolev Joint Stock Company aviation plant in Moscow. First flight of the Tu-95 was in 1954 and it entered service in 1956.

The Tu-95 has a maximum level speed of 650km/h and an unrefuelled combat radius of 6,400km. With one in-flight refuelling the aircraft has a combat radius of 8,200km.

The Tupolev aircraft regularly made long-range patrols near Nato and US airspace up to the end of the Cold War. In August 2007, President Putin announced that the Russian Air Force would resume long-range patrols by Tu-95 and Tu-160 strategic bombers after a gap of 15 years.

In July 2007 two Tupolev Tu-95 aircraft were headed towards Scotland and were met by UK RAF Tornado aircraft. In August 2007, two Tupolev Tu-95 aircraft flew towards a US air and naval exercise near the US military base at Guam. Also in August 2007, two UK RAF Typhoon aircraft were scrambled to intercept a Russian Air Force Tu-95 over the North Atlantic.

“The Tu-95 was originally built as a strategic, intercontinental heavy-payload bomber aircraft.”

Russian Air Force Air Army

The Russian Air Force 37th Air Army operates the Tu-95MS (Tu-95M 55 Bear H) in four units, the 49th ITAP unit based at Ryazan, 79th TBAP unit based in Ukrainka Air Base in Svobodny, 182th TBAP unit based in Zavitinsk and 6213 BKHUAT based at Engels Air Base in the Moscow Region.

Russian Air Force naval aviation

There are about 32 Tupolev Tu-142 Bear naval aviation aircraft in service with the Russia Navy.

There are an estimated 20 Tu-142M (Bear F mod 2) anti-submarine warfare aircraft and 12 Tu-142MR (Bear J) submarine radio relay aircraft in service with the 240th GvUAP naval air base at Ostrov and with the 310th OPLAP naval air base at Mongokhto.

The Bear J radio relay aircraft are equipped with VLF communications sets with a VLF ventral antenna pod under the centre fuselage. The satellite communications radome is installed just to the aft of the flight deck canopy. The aircraft maintain communications between the submarines of the northern and Pacific fleets and the Russian command stations.

Indian Air Force

The Indian Air Force 312 Squadron based at Arkonam operates eight Tu-142MK-E Aircraft (Bear F mod 3 export variant).

The aircraft entered service in the Indian Air Force in 1986 and is equipped for maritime patrol and anti-surface warfare, reconnaissance and search and rescue.

The mod 3 E-variant aircraft is a downgraded variant of the fully capable Tu-142MK mod 3. The Tu-142MK-E can be armed with the Sea Eagle ASM air-to-surface missile supplied by MBDA.


The cockpit accommodates the pilot and co-pilot. The forward compartment immediately behind the flight deck accommodates four or five crew members. The communications operator and a navigator and defence systems operator are seated facing rearward on the port side.

“The Tu-95 strategic bomber is powered by
four Samara Kuznetsov NK-12MP turboprop engines.”

The flight engineer’s station and a spare seat for an observer or training crew member face rearward on the starboard side. The bombardier / navigator officer’s station is in the centre of the cabin. The crew entry hatch is installed above the nose wheel bay.

The aircraft is equipped with a Radiotechniczny System Bliskiej Nawigacji (RSBN) Soviet-designed navigational aid. The RSBN antenna is installed under the box tail radar radome at the base of the rudder, i.e. at the base of the hinged section at the rear of the vertical stabiliser.

TU-95 Bear weapons

The aircraft houses a large bomb bay at the centre of gravity of the aircraft which is immediately aft of the wing central torsion box. The Tu-95MS Bear H is capable of carrying six KH-55 Granat (Nato designation AS-15 Kent) nuclear-armed long-range cruise missiles with a range of 3,000km. The missiles are mounted on a catapult launch drum in the bomb bay.

Alternatively the aircraft can carry 14 Kh-SD anti-ship missiles with a range of 600km or eight conventionally armed Kh-101 air launch cruise missiles which have a range of up to 3,000km.

The rear gun compartment is fitted with a twin barrelled GSh-23L cannon. The entry to the rear turret is separate from the main crew entry and is via a ventral hatch.


The aircraft is equipped with a weather radar, a navigation and bombing radar and a gun fire control radar. The low probability of intercept Obzor navigation and bombing radar, Nato designation clam pipe, is installed under the nose section. The clam pipe radar has synthetic aperture radar mapping capability. The PRS-4 box tail warning and gun fire control radar is installed at the base of the rudder.

Infrared sensors of the Mak-UT IR sensor missile approach warning system are installed under the nose sections and on the top surface of the fuselage above the wings.

Electronic warfare

Electronic countermeasures pods are pylon mounted on the port and starboard side of the tail gunner’s station and fairings are visible on each side of the weather radar on the nose section.

The antennae of the terrain bounce jammer, which attracts approaching radar-guided missiles down towards the ground reflected signal and away from the aircraft, are installed on the underside of the nose and under the rear section of the fuselage.

Radar warning receiver antennae are installed on the fin and on both sides of the front fuselage.

The APP-50 chaff and flare decoy dispensers are installed in the main landing gear doors.

“The Tu-95 has a maximum level speed of 650km/h and an unrefuelled combat radius of 6,400km.”

Tupolev TU-95 construction

The aircraft is an all metal construction, large high-performance aircraft with a distinctive high aspect ratio all swept wing, swept at 30°. The fuselage is of circular cross section, fuselage diameter 2.9m, and of semi-monocoque design. The fuselage houses three pressurised compartments.

The wings and tailplane leading edges are fitted with anti-icing heating. The aircraft carries three life rafts.

Turboprop engines

The aircraft is powered by four Samara Kuznetsov NK-12MP turboprop engines each rated at 11,033kW. The engines are fitted with eight bladed (two sets of four) contra-rotating propellers type AV-60N, of diameter 5.6m.

The aircraft has four wing tanks and three tanks in the fuselage, two in the centre and one in the rear section. The total fuel capacity is 95,000l. The aircraft has in-flight hose-and-drogue refuelling capability. The refuelling probe is above the nose and is fitted with flush lighting for night time operation. The information friend or foe antenna is installed above the refuelling probe.

The engines drive eight GSR-18000M generators for Type 12 SAM-55 accumulator batteries which provide DC power. AC power is provided by converters and four engine-driven AC generators. A gas turbine auxiliary power unit is installed in the dorsal fin.

Landing gear

The aircraft is fitted with tricycle-type hydraulically retractable landing gear. The four-wheel main units and the steerable twin-wheel nose units retract rearwards. The main landing gear nacelles are installed on the wing trailing edge. The units are fitted with hydraulically operated internal expanding-type brakes.

Posted in Aircrafts of Russia | Leave a Comment »

Tu-160 Blackjack Strategic Bomber

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 14, 2009



Key Data:



Wingspan with Wings Swept


Normal Combat Load Weight
Maximum Combat Load Weight
Fuel Weight


Operational Flight Range with Maximum Combat Load
Maximum Flight Speed at High Altitude
Maximum Flight Speed Near Ground
Service Ceiling
Concrete Runway Length


The Tu-160 supersonic strategic bomber was manufactured by the Tupolev aircraft research and engineering complex joint stock company in Moscow and the Kazan based Gorbunov Aircraft Production Association in Tatarstan from 1980 to 1992. Production has since been restarted and a Tu-160 was delivered to the Russian Air Force in May 2000. 16 aircraft are now in service in Russia.

One unarmed aircraft crashed in September 2003, the first crash since the aircraft entered service. Two aircraft are under construction and first was delivered to the Russian Air Force in April 2008. The Ukraine destroyed the last of its fleet in February 2001.

The purpose of the aircraft is the delivery of nuclear and conventional weapons deep in continental theatres of operation. The aircraft has all-weather, day-and-night capability and can operate at all geographical latitudes.

“The Tu-160 Blackjack can carry nuclear and conventional weapons including long-range nuclear missiles.”

The performance of the Russian Tu-160 is often compared to the US B-1B. The aircraft has an operational range of 14,000km and a service ceiling of 16,000m. The maximum flight speed is 2,000km/h at high altitude and 1,030km/h at low altitude.

Kazan Aircraft Production Organisation (KAPO) has been given a contract to upgrade the Russian Air Force’s 15 Tu-160 bombers. The Tupolev upgrade package will include new targeting systems, upgraded cruise missiles and electronic warfare suite. The first upgraded aircraft was delivered in July 2006.

In September 2008, two Tu-160 bombers made the first transatlantic flight for the type, from Murmansk to Venezuela, on what was described as a training mission.

Bomber design

The bomber’s airframe has a distinctive appearance, with the wing and fuselage gradually integrated into a single-piece configuration. The airframe structure is based on a titanium beam, all-welded torsion box. Throughout the entire airframe, all the main airframe members are secured to the titanium beam.

The variable geometry outer tapered wings sweep back from 20° to 65° in order to provide high-performance flight characteristics at both supersonic and subsonic speeds. The tail surfaces, both horizontal and vertical, are one piece and all-moving.

The Tu-160 uses fly-by-wire controls. The aircraft is equipped with three-strut landing gear, a tail wheel and a brake parachute. For take-off, the aircraft requires a concrete runway of 3,050m.

Tu-160 cockpit

The crew of the Tu-160 comprises a pilot and co-pilot, a navigator, and an operator. The four crew are equipped with zero / zero ejection seats, which provide the crew with the option of ejecting safely throughout the entire range of altitudes and air speeds, including when the aircraft is parked.

In the cockpit and cabins, all the data is presented on conventional electro-mechanical indicators and monitors, and not head-up displays or cathode ray tube displays. The Tu-160 has a control stick for flight control as used in a fighter aircraft – rather than control wheels or yokes, which are usually used in large transporter or bomber aircraft.


The Tu-160 can carry nuclear and conventional weapons including long-range nuclear missiles. The missiles are accommodated on multi-station launchers in each of the two weapons bays.

The Tu-160 is capable of carrying the strategic cruise missile Kh-55MS, which is known in the West by the Nato designation and codename AS-15 Kent. Up to 12 Kh-55MS missiles can be carried, six in each bay. The Kh-55MS is propelled by a turbofan engine. The maximum range is 3,000km, and it is armed with a 200kt nuclear warhead.

“The Tu-160 can carry the strategic cruise missile

The weapons bays are also fitted with launchers for the Kh-15P, which has the Nato designation and codename AS-16 Kickback. The Kh-15P Kickback has solid rocket fuel propulsion, which gives a range up to 200km. The Kickback can be fitted with a conventional 250kg warhead or a nuclear warhead. The aircraft is also capable of carrying a range of aerial bombs with a total weight up to 40t.

Tu-160 avionics

The aircraft is highly computerised, and the avionics systems include an integrated aiming, navigation and flight control system, with a navigation and attack radar, an electronic countermeasures system, and automatic controls.

Turbofan engines

The aircraft propulsion system consists of four NK-32 augmented turbofan engines, which each provide a maximum thrust of 25,000kg. The engines are installed in two pods under the shoulders of the wing. The air intake incorporates an adjustable vertical wedge.

The bomber has an in-flight refuelling system. In the inoperative position, the refuelling probe is retracted into the nose of the fuselage in front of the pilot’s cabin. The aircraft fuel capacity is 160,000kg.

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Su-35 Multirole Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 14, 2009


Su 35





Maximum Take-Off Weight
Weapons Payload


2 x Sturn /UFA AL-31F 117S
86.3kN each
Thrust with Afterburn
142.2kN each


Maximum Level Speed
2,390 km/h, Mach 2.25
Maximum Altitude
Range, Internal Fuel
Range, Drop Tanks


The latest version of the Su-35, Su-35BM, is an advanced capability multi-role air superiority fighter developed from the Su-27. The aircraft has high manoeuvrability (+9g) with a high angle of attack and is equipped with high-capability weapon systems that contribute to the new aircraft’s exceptional dogfighting capability. The maximum level speed is 2,390km/h or Mach 2.25.

The Su-35BM was unveiled at the Aerosalon MAKS air show in Moscow in August 2007 and its first flight was in February 2008. The aircraft will enter service with the Russian Air Force in 2010 and Sukhoi has announced that the aircraft will be available for export deliveries in 2010.

The aircraft is being developed, tested and introduced into serial production by the Sukhoi Design Bureau, based in Moscow, and will be manufactured by KNAPPO of Komsomolsk-on-Amur. Both companies are part of the Sukhoi Aviation Holding Joint Stock Company.

“The Su-35 is being developed, tested and introduced into serial production by the Sukhoi Design Bureau.”

Su-35 cockpit

The cockpit has a central control column and is fitted with a Zvesda K-36D-3.5E zero-zero ejection seat which allows the pilot to eject at zero speed and at zero altitude.

The aircraft has a quadruplex, digital fly-by-wire control developed by the Avionika Moscow Research and Production Complex JSC (MNPK Avionika).

The cockpit is fitted with two 230mm×305mm high-resolution MFI-35 liquid crystal displays with a multifunction control panel and a IKSh-1M head up display with a wide 20°×30° field of view.

The pilot has two VHF/UHF encrypted radio communications systems and a jam-resistant military data link system between squadron aircraft and between the aircraft and ground control. The navigation system is based on a digital map display with a strapdown inertial navigation system and global positioning system.

Fighter construction

Compared to the Su-27 design from which it is derived, the front fuselage diameter of the Su-35 has been increased to accommodate the larger 900mm-diameter antenna of the Irbis-E radar.

High-strength, low-weight, composite materials have been used for non-structural items such as the radomes, nose wheel, door and leading-edge flaps. Some of the fuselage structures are of carbon fibre and aluminium lithium alloy.


The aircraft has 12 hardpoints for carrying external weapons and stores.

Each wing has four hardpoints – one on the wingtip and three under-wing stations. There are two hardpoints on the underside of the fuselage on the centreline and one under each engine.


The aircraft’s air-to-air missiles can include the Vympel R-27 (Nato designation AA-10 Alamo), the Vympel radar-guided medium-range R-77 (AA-12 Adder) and the Vympel short-range infrared-guided R-73E (AA-11 Archer).

“The Su-35 multi-role fighter can be armed with a range of guided bombs.”

The aircraft’s air-to-surface missiles include the Molniya Kh-29 (AS-14 Kedge) tactical missiles, the Kh-31P (AS-17 Krypton) anti-radiation missiles and the long-range Kh-58UShE (AS-11 Kilter) anti-radiation missiles.

The Su-35 anti-ship missiles include Kh-31A, the long-range Kh-59MK (AS-18 Kazoo), the long-range Kalibr and the NPO Mashinostroenia heavy long-range Yakhont missile.


The Su-35 can be armed with a range of guided bombs, including the KAB-500Kr TV-guided bomb, KAB-500S-E satellite-guided bomb, LGB-250 laser-guided bomb, Kab-1500Kr TV-guided bomb and KAB-1500LG laser-guided bomb.

The aircraft can also be armed with 80mm, 122mm, 266mm and 420mm rockets.


The Gryazev-Shipunov 30mm GSh-30-1 gun is fitted in the starboard wing root with 150 rounds of ammunition.


The X-band multimode phased array Irbis-E radar is supplied by Tikhomirov Scientific-Research Institute of Instrument Design (NIIP), based in Zhukovsky. Irbis-E is a high-performance radar designed for the Su-35 aircraft.

The 900mm passive phased array antenna is mounted on a hydraulic actuator for mechanical steering. The electronic steering provides azimuthal and elevation coverage of 60°. With both mechanical and electronic scanning the coverage is 120°.

The radar can detect low-observable and stealth aircraft, unmanned air vehicles and missiles with a radar cross section of 0.01m² at ranges to 90km. Radar modes include air-to-air, air-to-ground, air-to-sea, mapping, Doppler beam and synthetic aperture radar modes. It can detect and track up to 30 airborne targets with a radar cross section (RCS) of 3m² at ranges of 400km using track-while-scan mode.

Infrared search and track

The infrared search and track fire control system, OLS-35 IRST, includes an infrared sensor, laser rangefinder, target designator and television camera. The accuracy of the laser rangefinder is 5m CEP (circular error probability), to a maximum range of 20km against airborne targets and 30km against ground targets. The OLS-35 is a high-performance system with ±90° azimuthal and +60°/-15° elevation coverage.

“Irbis-E is a high-performance radar designed for the Su-35 aircraft.”

The system’s acquisition range against a non-afterburning target is 50km forwards and 90km rearward. The Su-35 can also be fitted with a UOMZ Sapsan targeting and laser designation pod.


The aircraft’s electronic warfare suite includes a radar warning system, radar jammer, co-operative radar jamming system, missile approach warner, laser warner and chaff and flare dispenser.


The aircraft is powered by two Sturn / UFA AL-31F 117S turbofan engines with thrust-vectoring nozzle control, each supplying 86.3kN thrust or 142.2kN with afterburn. The engines were developed jointly by Sukhoi, Saturn and UMPO.

The total fuel capacity is 14,350l. In order to increase the unrefuelled range and endurance compared to earlier models the Su-35 incorporates additional tailfin and fin-root tanks. The fuel tanks are of aluminium lithium construction and are located in the wings, fuselage and in the square-tip twin tailfins. The unrefuelled range on internal fuel is 1,580km.

For in-flight refuelling the aircraft is equipped with a refuelling probe on the port side of the nose. Two external fuel tanks, type PTB-2000, provide an additional 4,000l of fuel. The ferry range with two external tanks is 4,500km.

Posted in Aircrafts of Russia | Leave a Comment »

Su-34 (Su-27IB) Flanker Fighter Bomber Aircraft

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 14, 2009


Su 34


Key Data:





Normal Take-Off Weight
Maximum Take-Off Weight
Normal Combat Load Weight
Maximum Combat Load Weight
Fuel, Internal Tanks
Fuel, External Tanks


Maximum Low-Altitude Speed
Maximum High-Altitude Speed
Service Ceiling
Take-Off Run
Landing Run
Landing Run With Brake parachute
Maximum g-Load
Range Near Ground Radius of Action, 900km/h, Normal Combat Load, Internal Fuel Tanks
Range Near Ground Radius of Action, 900km/h, Normal Combat Load, External Fuel Tanks
Ferry Range With External Fuel Tanks


1 x GSh-301
180 rounds
Firing Rate
1,500 rounds a minute
R-73 short-range air-to-air missile
High-presision autonomous air-to-surface missiles
Air-to-air missiles, target designation for air-to-air missiles
Guided air-to-surface missiles
Anti-radiation missiles
Air-to-ship missiles
Controlled and guided aerial bombs
Unguided bombs and rockets

R-73 Air-to-Air Missile:

Maximum Launch Weight
7.3kg, rod type
Cooled infrared
Fin Span
Maximum Launch Range
Minimum Range of Aft Hemisphere Launch
Target Acceleration g-Load
Kill Probability Fighter Target
Maximum Target Speed
Target Altitudes
0.02km to 20km

RW-AE Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile:

Launch Weight
21kg, rod type
Active radar homing
Radio-corrected inertial navigation for on-trajectory target lock-on
Missile Retargeting
Fin Span
Maximum Target Speed
Target Acceleration g-Load
Kill Probability Fighter Target
Target Altitudes
0.02km to 25km
Minimum Range of Aft Hemisphere Launch
Maximum Vertical Separation of Target and Host Aircraft


The Su-34 (also known as Su-27IB) fighter bomber has been developed by the Sukhoi Design Bureau Joint Stock Company in Moscow and the Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association at Novosibirsk in Russia. The Russian Air Force has ordered an initial 18 Su-34 aircraft, with a total requirement for up to 200 aircraft. The first two production aircraft were delivered to the Russian Air Force in December 2006.

Full-rate production began in January 2008. 24 Su-34 aircraft are expected to be in operational service in 2010. In January 2008 the Russian Air Force stated that 70 aircraft would be procured by 2015.

The Su-34 replaces for Tu-23M and Su-24 aircraft. Su-34 is one of a number of Russian aircraft, Su-27, Su-30, Su-33 and Su-35, which have been given the Nato codename Flanker.

“The Su-34 fighter bomber is armed with a 30mm GSh-301 gun and 180 rounds of ammunition.”

The Su-34 fighter bomber is a derivative of the Su-27 fighter aircraft. The aircraft design retains the basic layout and construction of the Su-27 airframe, with a conventional high-wing configuration and a substantial part of the onboard equipment. The Su-34 has a changed contour of the nose section to accommodate an advanced multi-mode phased array radar with terrain following and terrain avoidance modes. It has a two-seat rather than single-seat cockpit. The capacity of the internal fuel tanks has been increased with a resulting increased take-off weight. Changes have been made to the central tail boom for a rear-facing radar.

Su-34 cockpit

The cockpit has two K-36DM zero/zero ejection seats side by side for the pilot and co-pilot. The seats are supplied by Zvesda Research and Production Enterprise Joint Stock Company, Moscow. The multifunction displays in the cockpit show the flight parameters, the operational status of the aircraft units and tactical data.


The Su-34 is armed with a 30mm GSh-301 gun and 180 rounds of ammunition. The gun has a maximum rate of fire of 1,500 rounds a minute and the muzzle velocity is 860m/sec. The gun is supplied by the Instrument Design Bureau in Tula.

The aircraft has ten hardpoints for weapon payloads and is able to carry a range of missiles including air-to-air, air-to-surface, anti-ship and anti-radiation missiles, guided and unguided bombs, and rockets. The aircraft is fitted with a target designator.

The R-73 (Nato codename AA-11 Archer) short-range air-to-air missile is supplied by the Vympel State Engineering design Bureau in Moscow. The R-73 is an all-aspect missile capable of engaging targets in tail-chase or head-on mode. The missile has cooled infrared homing. The R-73 attacks the target within target designation angles of ±45° and with angular rates up to 60° a second. The missile can intercept targets at altitudes between 0.02km and 20km, target g-load to 12g, and with target speeds to 2,500km/h.

The RVV-AE long-range air-to-air missile, also known as the RR-77 or by the Nato designation AA-12, is manufactured by Vympel. The missile can intercept targets at speeds up to 3,600km/h and altitudes from 0.02km to 25km. The minimum range in the aft hemisphere is 300m and the maximum vertical separation between the host aircraft and the target is 10km.

The RR-77 has inertial guidance with mid-course radio updates and terminal active guidance. A new, longer-range (150km) version of the R-77, with solid fuel ram-jet propulsion, is being tested by Vympel.

The Su-34 carries a range of precision-guided and unguided bombs and rockets, including the KAB-500 laser-guided bomb developed by the Region State Research and Production Enterprise based in Moscow.

“The Russian Air Force has ordered an initial 18 Su-34 fighter bombers.”


The Su-34 is equipped with an electro-optical fire control system supplied by the Urals Optical and Mechanical Plant (YOM3) and a Geofizika FLIR (forward-looking infrared) pod. Leninetz of St Petersburg supplies the passive phased array radar system and TsNIRTI the electronic countermeasures suite.


First production aircraft are powered by two after-burning NPO Saturn AL-31F turbofan engines. Later aircraft may be fitted with MMPP Salyut AL-31F-M2/3 or NPO Saturn 117 engines. They are mounted under the wing and are equipped with all-duty fixed geometry air intakes. A rotor protection installed in the air intakes provides protection against the ingestion of foreign objects.

The aircraft can carry 12,100kg of fuel internally in two fuel tanks in the wings and four in the fuselage. Three external fuel tanks, each with a capacity of 3,000l, can also be fitted.

The aircraft can achieve a speed of 1,900km/h (Mach 1.6) at altitude and 1,300km/h (Mach 1) at sea level.

Posted in Aircrafts of Russia | Leave a Comment »

Su-30MK Multi-Role Two-Seater Fighter Aircraft

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 14, 2009

Su 30




Span of Foreplane
Length Excluding Probes


Empty Weight
Maximum Fuel
Take-off Weight
Maximum Take-off Weight
Maximum External Payload


2 x Saturn AL-37FP thrust vectoring engines
Thrust With Afterburn


Maximum Level Speed
2.35 Mach, 2,150km/hr
Maximum Rate of Climb
Maximum Altitude
Combat Range
Range With Single In-flight Refuelling
Take-off Run
Landing Run


The Sukhoi Su-30M is a multi-role two-seater fighter, broadly comparable to the American F-15E. The Su-30MK is the export version of the aircraft. The fighter is a development of the Su-27 (Flanker) family, designed by the Sukhoi Design Bureau of Moscow and is manufactured by the Irkut Corporation.

The aircraft is equipped with similar avionics and thrust vectoring as the Su-37, for superior combat agility and manoeuvrability. The aircraft is armed with precision anti-surface missiles and has a stand-off launch range of 120km.

The Indian Air Force ordered 40 aircraft in 1996 and an additional ten aircraft in 1998. 18 Su-30K have been delivered which will be upgraded to MKI standard, starting in 2006.

“The Sukhoi
Su-30M is a multi-role two-seater fighter, broadly comparable to the American

First deliveries of ten Su-30MKI full specification aircraft with thrust vectoring and phased array radar took place in September 2002 and deliveries were completed in December 2004.

Hindustani Aeronautics (HAL) is also contracted to build 140 aircraft in India between 2003 and 2017, under a licensed production agreement. The first indigenously assembled aircraft was delivered in November 2004.

38 Su-30MKK and 24 navalised Su-30MK2 aircraft, which do not have thrust vectoring capability, are in service with the Chinese Air Force.

In 2003, Malaysia ordered 18 Su-30MKM aircraft. The first two were delivered in May 2007. Four more were delivered in 2007 and four in March 2008 Deliveries are scheduled to conclude by the end of 2008. Also in 2003, Indonesia ordered two Su-30MKK aircraft. A further three Su-30MK2 aircraft were ordered in August 2007.

In March 2006, Algeria placed an order for 28 Su-30MKA aircraft. The first was delivered in December 2007. In July 2006, Venezuela placed a contract for 24 Su-30MKI aircraft. The first eight were delivered in May 2007 and deliveries concluded in August 2008. An order for 12 additional aircraft is planned.


The pilots are seated in tandem. The Su-30MKI for the Indian Air Force is fitted with an avionics suite developed by Ramenskoye Design Bureau (RPKB). The displays include a Thales (formerly Sextant Avionique) VEH3000 head up display and seven liquid crystal multifunction displays, six 127mm×127mm and one 152mm×152mm. The Su-30MKI has a high-accuracy Sagem Totem integrated global positioning system and ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system.

The rear cockpit is fitted with a larger monochromatic screen display for the air-to-surface missile guidance

The Su-30M can be equipped with a Phazotron N010 Zhuk-27 radar or a NIIP N011M BARS pulse Doppler phased array radar. The Su-30MKI is fitted with the N011M, which can track up to 15 targets simultaneously. The sensors include a rear facing radar installed in the tailcone.


The aircraft is fitted with a 30mm GSh-301 gun with 150 rounds of ammunition.

The aircraft has 12 hardpoints for external payloads up to 8,000kg and can carry one or two mission pods such as a laser designator or an anti-radiation missile guidance system.

The Malaysian Su-30MKM is fitted with the Thales Damocles laser designator pod.

Air-to-air missiles

The Su-30M, like the Su-30, can engage two airborne targets simultaneously. The aircraft can be armed with up to six medium-range air-to-air missiles such as the R-27RE (Nato codename AA-10C Alamo-C), the R27TE (AA-10D Alamo-D) or the Vympel RVV-AE (AA-12 Adder).

“The Su-30 can be armed with six medium-range air-to-air missiles such as the R-27RE.”

An alternative air-to-air missile fit is two AA-10D Alamo medium-range and six close-range Vympel R-73E (Nato AA-11 Archer) infrared homing missiles.

Air-to-surface missiles

The aircraft has a TV command guidance system. The air-to-surface missile fits include four anti-radiation missiles, six laser-guided short-range missiles or six short-range anti-surface missiles with television controlled homing.

The aircraft has a stand-off launch range of up to 120km. For long-range anti-surface capability the aircraft is armed with two TV command guided missiles such as the Kh-29 (AS-14 Kedge) with a 317kg penetrating warhead, the Zvezda Kh-31A (AS-17 Krypton) or the Raduga Kh-59M (AS-18 Kazoo).

For anti-surface ship missions the aircraft is armed with a one Raduga 3M80E Moskit supersonic anti-ship missile.

Indian Su-30MKI fighters are to be fitted with the Brahmos cruise missile, jointly developed by India and Russia. Brahmos has a range of 290km and a warhead of up to 350kg.


Other possible anti-surface weapon fits include bombs, rockets and rocket pods. The aircraft can carry AB-500, KAB-500KR and KAB-1500KR bombs, 80mm and 130mm rocket packs, and S-25 250mm rockets.


The aircraft’s integrated electronic warfare system includes a Tarang radar warning system, indigenously produced by the Indian Defence R&D Organisation (DRDO), and systems supplied by Israeli manufacturers.

The Malaysian Su-30MKM is fitted with a missile approach warning system and laser warner by Saab Avitronics in South Africa.


The Su-30MK is powered by two Saturn AL-37FP thrust vectoring engines, as installed on the Su-37 aircraft. The aircraft’s flight control system computes and manages the adjustment of the thrust and the vectoring for each engine. The nozzles are directed through ±15° in pitch. In an emergency, such as a system failure, the nozzles are returned hydraulically to a level flight position.

“Other possible anti-surface weapon fits for the Su-30 include bombs, rockets and rocket pods.”

The aircraft normally carries 5,090kg of fuel in three integral fuel tanks in the fuselage and a single integral split tank with each half installed in the outer wings. The maximum fuel capacity of the aircraft is 9,400kg.

The aircraft is equipped with a flight refuelling probe and a buddy-buddy refuelling system.

The combat range of the aircraft on internal fuel is 3,000km. With a single in-flight refuelling procedure the combat range is extended to 5,200km.

Landing gear

The aircraft has hydraulically retractable tricycle-type landing gear supplied by Hydromash. The main landing gear, fitted with KT-156D single wheels, turns through 90° to retract forward into the bay in the wingroot. The main landing gear is fitted with hydraulically operated carbon disc brakes with an electric brake cooling fan and an anti-skid system.

The single KND-27 nosewheel is hydraulically steerable and is forward retracting. A brake parachute compartment is installed in the tailcone at the rear of the fuselage.

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