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Yak-130 Combat Trainer

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 15, 2009

Yak-130

1.Specifications:

Dimensions:

Length, Development Model
11.49m
Length, Production Model
11.245m
Height
4.76m
Wingspan
9.72m
Wing Area
23.52m²
Wing Aspect Ratio
4:1

Weights:

Empty Weight
4,600kg
Typical Training Configuration Weight
5,700kg
Maximum Take-Off Weight
9,000kg
Weapon Payload
3,000kg
Internal Fuel
1,750kg

Engines:

Type (Prototype)
2 x V-2S turbofan engines
Thrust (Prototype)
2,200kg each
Type (Production Aircraft)
2 x AI-222-25 turbofan engines
Thrust (Production Aircraft)
2,500kg each

Performance:

Maximum Level Speed
1,060km/h
Service Ceiling
12,500m
Range With Internal Fuel
2,000km
Sustained G-limit at Mach 0.8
+4.8G
g-Limit
+8g to -3g
Landing Speed
190km/h
Landing Run
670m
Take-Off Speed
210km/h
Take-Off Run
380m
Service Life
30 years
Flight Hours
10,000 extendable to 15,000
Landings
20,000 landings

2.Introductions:

The Yak-130 combat trainer was selected as the winner of the trainer competition of the Voyenno Vozdushnyye Sily, Russian Federation Air Force, in April 2002. The aircraft is also being actively marketed for export by Yakovlev, the Irkut company, and by Rosoboronexport.

The Russian Air Force has a future requirement for 300 Yak-130 aircraft that can be deployed as a light strike aircraft or as a trainer for a range of fourth or fifth-generation fighters. An order has been placed for the first 12 aircraft to replace aging Aero Vodochody L-39 Albatros. The aircraft will enter service in the Russian Federation Air Force at the military pilot training academy in Krasnodar.

The production line for the aircraft at the Aviation Plant Sokol in Nizhny Novgorod, known as NAZ Sokol, is fully operational and the roll out of the first production series aircraft took place in May 2003. A series of flight tests of the serial production aircraft was started in April 2004 and will be completed in early 2006.

The Russian Air Force ordered official testing in May 2005. The full trials of the advanced combat trainer, including spin and combat tactics trials, are underway and are due to be completed by the end of 2008 prior to delivery of the first two production aircraft to the Russian Air Force.

In March 2006, it was announced that Algeria had placed an order for 16 Yak-130 trainers. Deliveries are due to commence in 2009.

Yak-130 development

A joint programme for trainer development between Yakovlev of Russia and Aermacchi of Italy began in 1993 and the Yak / AEM-130D demonstrator first flew in 1996. In 1999, the partnership was dissolved and the Yakovlev Yak-130 and the Aermacchi M346 became separate programmes.

By the second quarter of 2003, the Yak-130 prototype had successfully completed 450 flights, including high-manoeuvrability flight demonstrations such as a controlled angle of attack of 42°.

The Yak-130 has a maximum g-loading of +8g to -3g and is capable of executing the flight manoeuvres specific to current operational and developmental combat aircraft, including Su-30, MiG-29, Mirage, F-15, F-16, Eurofighter, F-22 and F-35.

Other variants of the Yak-130 being considered include a navalised carrier-based trainer aircraft, a lightweight reconnaissance aircraft and an unmanned strike aircraft.

Design

The Yak-130 production aircraft is slightly different from the Yak-130D demonstrator, with lower weight, a more rounded nose to accommodate a radar, a shorter fuselage length and a lower wing area.

“The Yak-130 production aircraft is slightly different from the Yak-130D demonstrator.”

The Yak-130 is of classical swept-wing and empennage monoplane design and light alloy construction with carbon-fibre control surfaces. Kevlar armour protection is fitted to the engines, cockpit and avionics compartment.

The moderately swept high-lift wing and the all-moving low-mounted tail plane allow the pilot to choose high angles of attack. For short airfield performance the aircraft is equipped with leading edge slats and three-position Fowler flaps.

The Fowler flaps are split flaps which move rearward and then downward on tracks to give a large increase in lift and high lift and drag for landing manoeuvres. The airframe is designed for a 30-year service life with 10,000 hours flying time or 20,000 landings.

Cockpit

The aircraft has an air-conditioned and pressurised two-seat tandem cockpit fitted with NPO Zvezda K-36LT3.5 zero-zero ejection seats. The pilots have all-round view through a blister canopy. The forward pilot has a view over the nose to -16°. The rear pilot has a view to -6°.

The production Yak-130 is the first Russian aircraft with an all-digital avionics suite. The avionics meets Mil Standard 1553 and can be adapted to the customer’s requirements.

The aircraft has an all-glass cockpit. Both pilot positions are night vision goggle compatible and equipped with three multi-function 6in x 8in colour liquid crystal displays. The pilot in the forward cockpit can use the helmet-mounted sight for target designation. The cockpit is fitted with an MS internal and external communication and voice warning system supplied by AA.S. Popov GZAS joint stock company.

The Avionica fly-by-wire flight control system is used to adjust the stability and controllability characteristics and flight safety systems to simulate a number of aircraft such as the MiG-29, Su-27, Su-30, F-15, F-16, F-18, Mirage 2000, Rafale, Typhoon and future fighters such as the F-35.

The pilot selects the software model of the simulated aircraft’s control system on the Yak-130 onboard computer. The pilot can select the model during flight. The system can be forgiving to allow cadet pilots the easy acquisition of piloting skills.

The open architecture avionics suite includes two computers and a three-channel information exchange multiplexer. The navigation suite includes laser gyroscopes and GLONASS / NAVSTAR global positioning.

“The Yak-130 combat trainer is fitted with a 30mm GSh-301 cannon or a podded GSh-23 cannon installed under the fuselage.”

Weapons

The Yak-130 combat trainer can simulate the tactics of different combat aircraft. There is one centreline fuselage hardpoint and the number of wing hardpoints for the suspension of weapons payloads has been increased to eight with six underwing and two wingtip points, increasing the combat payload weight to 3,000kg.

The aircraft can carry weapons, suspended fuel tanks, reconnaissance pods and a range of electronic warfare pods including radar jammers and infrared countermeasures.

An open architecture avionics suite installed on the Yak-130 allows a wide range of western weapon systems and guided missiles to be integrated including the AIM-9L Sidewinder, Magic 2 and the AGM-65 Maverick.

Weapons fits include the Vikhr laser-guided missile, R-73 infrared-guided air-to-air missiles (Nato designation AA-11 Archer) and the Kh-25 ML (Nato designation AS-10 Karen) air-to-surface laser-guided missile. A Platan electro-optical guidance pod is installed under the fuselage for deployment of the KAB-500Kr guided bomb.

The aircraft is fitted with a 30mm GSh-301 cannon or a podded GSh-23 cannon installed under the fuselage. It can also deploy unguided B-8M and B-18 rockets, 250kg and 50kg bombs and cluster bombs.

Radar

The Yak-130 is fitted with the 8GHz to 12.5GHz Osa or Oca (Wasp) radar developed by NIIP Zhukovsky. The radar has the capacity to track eight airborne targets simultaneously, simultaneously engage four targets at all angles and simultaneously track two ground targets. The detection range against 5m² cross section targets is 40km in the rear direction and 85km in the forward direction. The lock-on range for operation in automatic tracking mode is 65km.

The radar, which has adaptive waveforms and sidelobes, has a surface mapping mode which includes image freezing and zooming on areas of interest.

An alternative radar fit is the Kopyo (Spear) radar. The aircraft can also be fitted with a podded Platan (Palm Tree) infrared search and track targeting system.

Countermeasures

The electronic warfare suite includes a chaff and flare dispenser, a radar warning receiver and active jammers.

Engines

The aircraft has a high thrust-to-weight ratio of about 0.85. The demonstrator is powered by two Slovakian Povazske Strojarne DV-2SM turbofan engines, each rated at 2,200kg thrust.

“The Yak-130 combat trainer’s electronic warfare suite includes a chaff and flare dispenser, a radar warning receiver and active jammers.”

Production aircraft are fitted with two powerful high-economy AI-222-25 turbofan engines, each rated at 2,500kg thrust and developed under a Russian and Ukrainian program by Motor Sich, Zaporozh’e Progress Design Bureau and the Moscow Salyut Motor Building Production Enterprise. The export variant of the Yak-130 can be fitted with the DV-2SM engine.

The internal fuel tanks, comprising two wing tanks and a centre fuselage tank, carry up to 1,750kg of fuel. With two suspended fuel tanks (each 450l) the maximum total fuel load is 2,650kg. The aircraft is fitted with single point pressure or optional gravity refuelling. The aircraft can be fitted with an in-flight refuelling probe.

The export variant of the Yak-130 can be fitted with the DV-2SM engine.

According to the customer country’s requirement, the aircraft can be fitted with an in-flight refuelling probe.

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Tu-95 Bear Strategic Bomber

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 14, 2009

Tu95

Tu-142

Tu 95

Tu-95

1.Specifiactions:

Dimensions:

Wingspan
50m
Length
49.1m
Height
13.4m
Fuselage Diameter
2.9m

Weights:

Empty Weight
94,400kg
Fuel Weight
84,000kg

Engines:

Type
4 x NK-12MP turboprop
Rating
11,033kW each

Performance:

Maximum Speed at 25,000ft
920km/h
Cruise Speed
710km/h
Service Ceiling
12,000m
Unrefuelled Combat Radius
6,400km

Weapons:

Missiles
6 x Kh-55 nuclear ALCM, 14 x Kh-SD anti-ship missiles or eight conventionally armed Kh-101 ALCM
Gun
1 x twin-barrelled GSh-23L cannon

2.Introductions:

The Tupolev Tu-95 has been built in many Tu-95 and Tu-142 variants but was originally built as a strategic, intercontinental heavy-payload bomber aircraft. The aircraft is currently in service in both the Russian Air Force Naval Aviation and Russian Air Force Air Army units, and with the Indian Air Force. The Tu-95s were designed and built at the Tupolev Joint Stock Company aviation plant in Moscow. First flight of the Tu-95 was in 1954 and it entered service in 1956.

The Tu-95 has a maximum level speed of 650km/h and an unrefuelled combat radius of 6,400km. With one in-flight refuelling the aircraft has a combat radius of 8,200km.

The Tupolev aircraft regularly made long-range patrols near Nato and US airspace up to the end of the Cold War. In August 2007, President Putin announced that the Russian Air Force would resume long-range patrols by Tu-95 and Tu-160 strategic bombers after a gap of 15 years.

In July 2007 two Tupolev Tu-95 aircraft were headed towards Scotland and were met by UK RAF Tornado aircraft. In August 2007, two Tupolev Tu-95 aircraft flew towards a US air and naval exercise near the US military base at Guam. Also in August 2007, two UK RAF Typhoon aircraft were scrambled to intercept a Russian Air Force Tu-95 over the North Atlantic.

“The Tu-95 was originally built as a strategic, intercontinental heavy-payload bomber aircraft.”

Russian Air Force Air Army

The Russian Air Force 37th Air Army operates the Tu-95MS (Tu-95M 55 Bear H) in four units, the 49th ITAP unit based at Ryazan, 79th TBAP unit based in Ukrainka Air Base in Svobodny, 182th TBAP unit based in Zavitinsk and 6213 BKHUAT based at Engels Air Base in the Moscow Region.

Russian Air Force naval aviation

There are about 32 Tupolev Tu-142 Bear naval aviation aircraft in service with the Russia Navy.

There are an estimated 20 Tu-142M (Bear F mod 2) anti-submarine warfare aircraft and 12 Tu-142MR (Bear J) submarine radio relay aircraft in service with the 240th GvUAP naval air base at Ostrov and with the 310th OPLAP naval air base at Mongokhto.

The Bear J radio relay aircraft are equipped with VLF communications sets with a VLF ventral antenna pod under the centre fuselage. The satellite communications radome is installed just to the aft of the flight deck canopy. The aircraft maintain communications between the submarines of the northern and Pacific fleets and the Russian command stations.

Indian Air Force

The Indian Air Force 312 Squadron based at Arkonam operates eight Tu-142MK-E Aircraft (Bear F mod 3 export variant).

The aircraft entered service in the Indian Air Force in 1986 and is equipped for maritime patrol and anti-surface warfare, reconnaissance and search and rescue.

The mod 3 E-variant aircraft is a downgraded variant of the fully capable Tu-142MK mod 3. The Tu-142MK-E can be armed with the Sea Eagle ASM air-to-surface missile supplied by MBDA.

Cockpit

The cockpit accommodates the pilot and co-pilot. The forward compartment immediately behind the flight deck accommodates four or five crew members. The communications operator and a navigator and defence systems operator are seated facing rearward on the port side.

“The Tu-95 strategic bomber is powered by
four Samara Kuznetsov NK-12MP turboprop engines.”

The flight engineer’s station and a spare seat for an observer or training crew member face rearward on the starboard side. The bombardier / navigator officer’s station is in the centre of the cabin. The crew entry hatch is installed above the nose wheel bay.

The aircraft is equipped with a Radiotechniczny System Bliskiej Nawigacji (RSBN) Soviet-designed navigational aid. The RSBN antenna is installed under the box tail radar radome at the base of the rudder, i.e. at the base of the hinged section at the rear of the vertical stabiliser.

TU-95 Bear weapons

The aircraft houses a large bomb bay at the centre of gravity of the aircraft which is immediately aft of the wing central torsion box. The Tu-95MS Bear H is capable of carrying six KH-55 Granat (Nato designation AS-15 Kent) nuclear-armed long-range cruise missiles with a range of 3,000km. The missiles are mounted on a catapult launch drum in the bomb bay.

Alternatively the aircraft can carry 14 Kh-SD anti-ship missiles with a range of 600km or eight conventionally armed Kh-101 air launch cruise missiles which have a range of up to 3,000km.

The rear gun compartment is fitted with a twin barrelled GSh-23L cannon. The entry to the rear turret is separate from the main crew entry and is via a ventral hatch.

Sensors

The aircraft is equipped with a weather radar, a navigation and bombing radar and a gun fire control radar. The low probability of intercept Obzor navigation and bombing radar, Nato designation clam pipe, is installed under the nose section. The clam pipe radar has synthetic aperture radar mapping capability. The PRS-4 box tail warning and gun fire control radar is installed at the base of the rudder.

Infrared sensors of the Mak-UT IR sensor missile approach warning system are installed under the nose sections and on the top surface of the fuselage above the wings.

Electronic warfare

Electronic countermeasures pods are pylon mounted on the port and starboard side of the tail gunner’s station and fairings are visible on each side of the weather radar on the nose section.

The antennae of the terrain bounce jammer, which attracts approaching radar-guided missiles down towards the ground reflected signal and away from the aircraft, are installed on the underside of the nose and under the rear section of the fuselage.

Radar warning receiver antennae are installed on the fin and on both sides of the front fuselage.

The APP-50 chaff and flare decoy dispensers are installed in the main landing gear doors.

“The Tu-95 has a maximum level speed of 650km/h and an unrefuelled combat radius of 6,400km.”

Tupolev TU-95 construction

The aircraft is an all metal construction, large high-performance aircraft with a distinctive high aspect ratio all swept wing, swept at 30°. The fuselage is of circular cross section, fuselage diameter 2.9m, and of semi-monocoque design. The fuselage houses three pressurised compartments.

The wings and tailplane leading edges are fitted with anti-icing heating. The aircraft carries three life rafts.

Turboprop engines

The aircraft is powered by four Samara Kuznetsov NK-12MP turboprop engines each rated at 11,033kW. The engines are fitted with eight bladed (two sets of four) contra-rotating propellers type AV-60N, of diameter 5.6m.

The aircraft has four wing tanks and three tanks in the fuselage, two in the centre and one in the rear section. The total fuel capacity is 95,000l. The aircraft has in-flight hose-and-drogue refuelling capability. The refuelling probe is above the nose and is fitted with flush lighting for night time operation. The information friend or foe antenna is installed above the refuelling probe.

The engines drive eight GSR-18000M generators for Type 12 SAM-55 accumulator batteries which provide DC power. AC power is provided by converters and four engine-driven AC generators. A gas turbine auxiliary power unit is installed in the dorsal fin.

Landing gear

The aircraft is fitted with tricycle-type hydraulically retractable landing gear. The four-wheel main units and the steerable twin-wheel nose units retract rearwards. The main landing gear nacelles are installed on the wing trailing edge. The units are fitted with hydraulically operated internal expanding-type brakes.

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Tu-160 Blackjack Strategic Bomber

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 14, 2009

Tu160

1.Specifications:

Key Data:

Crew
4

Dimensions:

Wingspan with Wings Swept
35.6m
Length
54.1m
Height
13.1m

Weights:

Normal Combat Load Weight
9,000kg
Maximum Combat Load Weight
40,000kg
Fuel Weight
148,000kg

Performance:

Operational Flight Range with Maximum Combat Load
10,500km
Maximum Flight Speed at High Altitude
2,000km/h
Maximum Flight Speed Near Ground
1,030km/h
Service Ceiling
16,000m
Concrete Runway Length
3,050m

2.Introductions:

The Tu-160 supersonic strategic bomber was manufactured by the Tupolev aircraft research and engineering complex joint stock company in Moscow and the Kazan based Gorbunov Aircraft Production Association in Tatarstan from 1980 to 1992. Production has since been restarted and a Tu-160 was delivered to the Russian Air Force in May 2000. 16 aircraft are now in service in Russia.

One unarmed aircraft crashed in September 2003, the first crash since the aircraft entered service. Two aircraft are under construction and first was delivered to the Russian Air Force in April 2008. The Ukraine destroyed the last of its fleet in February 2001.

The purpose of the aircraft is the delivery of nuclear and conventional weapons deep in continental theatres of operation. The aircraft has all-weather, day-and-night capability and can operate at all geographical latitudes.

“The Tu-160 Blackjack can carry nuclear and conventional weapons including long-range nuclear missiles.”

The performance of the Russian Tu-160 is often compared to the US B-1B. The aircraft has an operational range of 14,000km and a service ceiling of 16,000m. The maximum flight speed is 2,000km/h at high altitude and 1,030km/h at low altitude.

Kazan Aircraft Production Organisation (KAPO) has been given a contract to upgrade the Russian Air Force’s 15 Tu-160 bombers. The Tupolev upgrade package will include new targeting systems, upgraded cruise missiles and electronic warfare suite. The first upgraded aircraft was delivered in July 2006.

In September 2008, two Tu-160 bombers made the first transatlantic flight for the type, from Murmansk to Venezuela, on what was described as a training mission.

Bomber design

The bomber’s airframe has a distinctive appearance, with the wing and fuselage gradually integrated into a single-piece configuration. The airframe structure is based on a titanium beam, all-welded torsion box. Throughout the entire airframe, all the main airframe members are secured to the titanium beam.

The variable geometry outer tapered wings sweep back from 20° to 65° in order to provide high-performance flight characteristics at both supersonic and subsonic speeds. The tail surfaces, both horizontal and vertical, are one piece and all-moving.

The Tu-160 uses fly-by-wire controls. The aircraft is equipped with three-strut landing gear, a tail wheel and a brake parachute. For take-off, the aircraft requires a concrete runway of 3,050m.

Tu-160 cockpit

The crew of the Tu-160 comprises a pilot and co-pilot, a navigator, and an operator. The four crew are equipped with zero / zero ejection seats, which provide the crew with the option of ejecting safely throughout the entire range of altitudes and air speeds, including when the aircraft is parked.

In the cockpit and cabins, all the data is presented on conventional electro-mechanical indicators and monitors, and not head-up displays or cathode ray tube displays. The Tu-160 has a control stick for flight control as used in a fighter aircraft – rather than control wheels or yokes, which are usually used in large transporter or bomber aircraft.

Weapons

The Tu-160 can carry nuclear and conventional weapons including long-range nuclear missiles. The missiles are accommodated on multi-station launchers in each of the two weapons bays.

The Tu-160 is capable of carrying the strategic cruise missile Kh-55MS, which is known in the West by the Nato designation and codename AS-15 Kent. Up to 12 Kh-55MS missiles can be carried, six in each bay. The Kh-55MS is propelled by a turbofan engine. The maximum range is 3,000km, and it is armed with a 200kt nuclear warhead.

“The Tu-160 can carry the strategic cruise missile
Kh-55MS.”

The weapons bays are also fitted with launchers for the Kh-15P, which has the Nato designation and codename AS-16 Kickback. The Kh-15P Kickback has solid rocket fuel propulsion, which gives a range up to 200km. The Kickback can be fitted with a conventional 250kg warhead or a nuclear warhead. The aircraft is also capable of carrying a range of aerial bombs with a total weight up to 40t.

Tu-160 avionics

The aircraft is highly computerised, and the avionics systems include an integrated aiming, navigation and flight control system, with a navigation and attack radar, an electronic countermeasures system, and automatic controls.

Turbofan engines

The aircraft propulsion system consists of four NK-32 augmented turbofan engines, which each provide a maximum thrust of 25,000kg. The engines are installed in two pods under the shoulders of the wing. The air intake incorporates an adjustable vertical wedge.

The bomber has an in-flight refuelling system. In the inoperative position, the refuelling probe is retracted into the nose of the fuselage in front of the pilot’s cabin. The aircraft fuel capacity is 160,000kg.

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Su-35 Multirole Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 14, 2009

Su35

Su 35

1.Specifications:

Dimensions:

Length
21.9m
Height
5.9m
Wingspan
15m

Weights:

Maximum Take-Off Weight
34,500kg
Weapons Payload
8,000kg

Engines:

Type
2 x Sturn /UFA AL-31F 117S
Thrust
86.3kN each
Thrust with Afterburn
142.2kN each

Performance:

Maximum Level Speed
2,390 km/h, Mach 2.25
Manoeuvrability
+9g
Maximum Altitude
18,000m
Range, Internal Fuel
3,600km
Range, Drop Tanks
4,200km

2.Introductions:

The latest version of the Su-35, Su-35BM, is an advanced capability multi-role air superiority fighter developed from the Su-27. The aircraft has high manoeuvrability (+9g) with a high angle of attack and is equipped with high-capability weapon systems that contribute to the new aircraft’s exceptional dogfighting capability. The maximum level speed is 2,390km/h or Mach 2.25.

The Su-35BM was unveiled at the Aerosalon MAKS air show in Moscow in August 2007 and its first flight was in February 2008. The aircraft will enter service with the Russian Air Force in 2010 and Sukhoi has announced that the aircraft will be available for export deliveries in 2010.

The aircraft is being developed, tested and introduced into serial production by the Sukhoi Design Bureau, based in Moscow, and will be manufactured by KNAPPO of Komsomolsk-on-Amur. Both companies are part of the Sukhoi Aviation Holding Joint Stock Company.

“The Su-35 is being developed, tested and introduced into serial production by the Sukhoi Design Bureau.”

Su-35 cockpit

The cockpit has a central control column and is fitted with a Zvesda K-36D-3.5E zero-zero ejection seat which allows the pilot to eject at zero speed and at zero altitude.

The aircraft has a quadruplex, digital fly-by-wire control developed by the Avionika Moscow Research and Production Complex JSC (MNPK Avionika).

The cockpit is fitted with two 230mm×305mm high-resolution MFI-35 liquid crystal displays with a multifunction control panel and a IKSh-1M head up display with a wide 20°×30° field of view.

The pilot has two VHF/UHF encrypted radio communications systems and a jam-resistant military data link system between squadron aircraft and between the aircraft and ground control. The navigation system is based on a digital map display with a strapdown inertial navigation system and global positioning system.

Fighter construction

Compared to the Su-27 design from which it is derived, the front fuselage diameter of the Su-35 has been increased to accommodate the larger 900mm-diameter antenna of the Irbis-E radar.

High-strength, low-weight, composite materials have been used for non-structural items such as the radomes, nose wheel, door and leading-edge flaps. Some of the fuselage structures are of carbon fibre and aluminium lithium alloy.

Weapons

The aircraft has 12 hardpoints for carrying external weapons and stores.

Each wing has four hardpoints – one on the wingtip and three under-wing stations. There are two hardpoints on the underside of the fuselage on the centreline and one under each engine.

Missiles

The aircraft’s air-to-air missiles can include the Vympel R-27 (Nato designation AA-10 Alamo), the Vympel radar-guided medium-range R-77 (AA-12 Adder) and the Vympel short-range infrared-guided R-73E (AA-11 Archer).

“The Su-35 multi-role fighter can be armed with a range of guided bombs.”

The aircraft’s air-to-surface missiles include the Molniya Kh-29 (AS-14 Kedge) tactical missiles, the Kh-31P (AS-17 Krypton) anti-radiation missiles and the long-range Kh-58UShE (AS-11 Kilter) anti-radiation missiles.

The Su-35 anti-ship missiles include Kh-31A, the long-range Kh-59MK (AS-18 Kazoo), the long-range Kalibr and the NPO Mashinostroenia heavy long-range Yakhont missile.

Ordnance

The Su-35 can be armed with a range of guided bombs, including the KAB-500Kr TV-guided bomb, KAB-500S-E satellite-guided bomb, LGB-250 laser-guided bomb, Kab-1500Kr TV-guided bomb and KAB-1500LG laser-guided bomb.

The aircraft can also be armed with 80mm, 122mm, 266mm and 420mm rockets.

Guns

The Gryazev-Shipunov 30mm GSh-30-1 gun is fitted in the starboard wing root with 150 rounds of ammunition.

Sensors

The X-band multimode phased array Irbis-E radar is supplied by Tikhomirov Scientific-Research Institute of Instrument Design (NIIP), based in Zhukovsky. Irbis-E is a high-performance radar designed for the Su-35 aircraft.

The 900mm passive phased array antenna is mounted on a hydraulic actuator for mechanical steering. The electronic steering provides azimuthal and elevation coverage of 60°. With both mechanical and electronic scanning the coverage is 120°.

The radar can detect low-observable and stealth aircraft, unmanned air vehicles and missiles with a radar cross section of 0.01m² at ranges to 90km. Radar modes include air-to-air, air-to-ground, air-to-sea, mapping, Doppler beam and synthetic aperture radar modes. It can detect and track up to 30 airborne targets with a radar cross section (RCS) of 3m² at ranges of 400km using track-while-scan mode.

Infrared search and track

The infrared search and track fire control system, OLS-35 IRST, includes an infrared sensor, laser rangefinder, target designator and television camera. The accuracy of the laser rangefinder is 5m CEP (circular error probability), to a maximum range of 20km against airborne targets and 30km against ground targets. The OLS-35 is a high-performance system with ±90° azimuthal and +60°/-15° elevation coverage.

“Irbis-E is a high-performance radar designed for the Su-35 aircraft.”

The system’s acquisition range against a non-afterburning target is 50km forwards and 90km rearward. The Su-35 can also be fitted with a UOMZ Sapsan targeting and laser designation pod.

Countermeasures

The aircraft’s electronic warfare suite includes a radar warning system, radar jammer, co-operative radar jamming system, missile approach warner, laser warner and chaff and flare dispenser.

Engines

The aircraft is powered by two Sturn / UFA AL-31F 117S turbofan engines with thrust-vectoring nozzle control, each supplying 86.3kN thrust or 142.2kN with afterburn. The engines were developed jointly by Sukhoi, Saturn and UMPO.

The total fuel capacity is 14,350l. In order to increase the unrefuelled range and endurance compared to earlier models the Su-35 incorporates additional tailfin and fin-root tanks. The fuel tanks are of aluminium lithium construction and are located in the wings, fuselage and in the square-tip twin tailfins. The unrefuelled range on internal fuel is 1,580km.

For in-flight refuelling the aircraft is equipped with a refuelling probe on the port side of the nose. Two external fuel tanks, type PTB-2000, provide an additional 4,000l of fuel. The ferry range with two external tanks is 4,500km.

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Su-34 (Su-27IB) Flanker Fighter Bomber Aircraft

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 14, 2009

Su34

Su 34

1.Specifications:

Key Data:

Crew
2

Dimensions:

Length
23.34m
Height
6.36m
Wingspan
14.05m

Weights:

Normal Take-Off Weight
39,999kg
Maximum Take-Off Weight
45,100kg
Normal Combat Load Weight
4,000kg
Maximum Combat Load Weight
8,000lg
Fuel, Internal Tanks
12,100kg
Fuel, External Tanks
19,300kg

Performance:

Maximum Low-Altitude Speed
1,300km/h
Maximum High-Altitude Speed
1,900km/h
Service Ceiling
14,000m
Take-Off Run
1,260m
Landing Run
2,100m
Landing Run With Brake parachute
950m
Maximum g-Load
7g
Range Near Ground Radius of Action, 900km/h, Normal Combat Load, Internal Fuel Tanks
600km
Range Near Ground Radius of Action, 900km/h, Normal Combat Load, External Fuel Tanks
1,130km
Ferry Range With External Fuel Tanks
4,500km

Weapons:

Gun
1 x GSh-301
Ammunition
180 rounds
Firing Rate
1,500 rounds a minute
Missiles
R-73 short-range air-to-air missile
High-presision autonomous air-to-surface missiles
Air-to-air missiles, target designation for air-to-air missiles
Guided air-to-surface missiles
Anti-radiation missiles
Air-to-ship missiles
Controlled and guided aerial bombs
Unguided bombs and rockets

R-73 Air-to-Air Missile:

Maximum Launch Weight
105kg
Warhead
7.3kg, rod type
Guidance
Cooled infrared
Length
2.9m
Diameter
0.17m
Fin Span
0.51m
Maximum Launch Range
20km
Minimum Range of Aft Hemisphere Launch
300m
Target Acceleration g-Load
12g
Kill Probability Fighter Target
0.6
Maximum Target Speed
2,500km/h
Target Altitudes
0.02km to 20km

RW-AE Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile:

Launch Weight
175kg
Warhead
21kg, rod type
Guidance
Active radar homing
Radio-corrected inertial navigation for on-trajectory target lock-on
Missile Retargeting
Length
3.6m
Diameter
0.2m
Fin Span
0.75m
Maximum Target Speed
3,600km/h
Target Acceleration g-Load
12g
Kill Probability Fighter Target
0.7
Target Altitudes
0.02km to 25km
Minimum Range of Aft Hemisphere Launch
300m
Maximum Vertical Separation of Target and Host Aircraft
10km

2.Introductions:

The Su-34 (also known as Su-27IB) fighter bomber has been developed by the Sukhoi Design Bureau Joint Stock Company in Moscow and the Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association at Novosibirsk in Russia. The Russian Air Force has ordered an initial 18 Su-34 aircraft, with a total requirement for up to 200 aircraft. The first two production aircraft were delivered to the Russian Air Force in December 2006.

Full-rate production began in January 2008. 24 Su-34 aircraft are expected to be in operational service in 2010. In January 2008 the Russian Air Force stated that 70 aircraft would be procured by 2015.

The Su-34 replaces for Tu-23M and Su-24 aircraft. Su-34 is one of a number of Russian aircraft, Su-27, Su-30, Su-33 and Su-35, which have been given the Nato codename Flanker.

“The Su-34 fighter bomber is armed with a 30mm GSh-301 gun and 180 rounds of ammunition.”

The Su-34 fighter bomber is a derivative of the Su-27 fighter aircraft. The aircraft design retains the basic layout and construction of the Su-27 airframe, with a conventional high-wing configuration and a substantial part of the onboard equipment. The Su-34 has a changed contour of the nose section to accommodate an advanced multi-mode phased array radar with terrain following and terrain avoidance modes. It has a two-seat rather than single-seat cockpit. The capacity of the internal fuel tanks has been increased with a resulting increased take-off weight. Changes have been made to the central tail boom for a rear-facing radar.

Su-34 cockpit

The cockpit has two K-36DM zero/zero ejection seats side by side for the pilot and co-pilot. The seats are supplied by Zvesda Research and Production Enterprise Joint Stock Company, Moscow. The multifunction displays in the cockpit show the flight parameters, the operational status of the aircraft units and tactical data.

Weapons

The Su-34 is armed with a 30mm GSh-301 gun and 180 rounds of ammunition. The gun has a maximum rate of fire of 1,500 rounds a minute and the muzzle velocity is 860m/sec. The gun is supplied by the Instrument Design Bureau in Tula.

The aircraft has ten hardpoints for weapon payloads and is able to carry a range of missiles including air-to-air, air-to-surface, anti-ship and anti-radiation missiles, guided and unguided bombs, and rockets. The aircraft is fitted with a target designator.

The R-73 (Nato codename AA-11 Archer) short-range air-to-air missile is supplied by the Vympel State Engineering design Bureau in Moscow. The R-73 is an all-aspect missile capable of engaging targets in tail-chase or head-on mode. The missile has cooled infrared homing. The R-73 attacks the target within target designation angles of ±45° and with angular rates up to 60° a second. The missile can intercept targets at altitudes between 0.02km and 20km, target g-load to 12g, and with target speeds to 2,500km/h.

The RVV-AE long-range air-to-air missile, also known as the RR-77 or by the Nato designation AA-12, is manufactured by Vympel. The missile can intercept targets at speeds up to 3,600km/h and altitudes from 0.02km to 25km. The minimum range in the aft hemisphere is 300m and the maximum vertical separation between the host aircraft and the target is 10km.

The RR-77 has inertial guidance with mid-course radio updates and terminal active guidance. A new, longer-range (150km) version of the R-77, with solid fuel ram-jet propulsion, is being tested by Vympel.

The Su-34 carries a range of precision-guided and unguided bombs and rockets, including the KAB-500 laser-guided bomb developed by the Region State Research and Production Enterprise based in Moscow.

“The Russian Air Force has ordered an initial 18 Su-34 fighter bombers.”

Systems

The Su-34 is equipped with an electro-optical fire control system supplied by the Urals Optical and Mechanical Plant (YOM3) and a Geofizika FLIR (forward-looking infrared) pod. Leninetz of St Petersburg supplies the passive phased array radar system and TsNIRTI the electronic countermeasures suite.

Engines

First production aircraft are powered by two after-burning NPO Saturn AL-31F turbofan engines. Later aircraft may be fitted with MMPP Salyut AL-31F-M2/3 or NPO Saturn 117 engines. They are mounted under the wing and are equipped with all-duty fixed geometry air intakes. A rotor protection installed in the air intakes provides protection against the ingestion of foreign objects.

The aircraft can carry 12,100kg of fuel internally in two fuel tanks in the wings and four in the fuselage. Three external fuel tanks, each with a capacity of 3,000l, can also be fitted.

The aircraft can achieve a speed of 1,900km/h (Mach 1.6) at altitude and 1,300km/h (Mach 1) at sea level.

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Su-30MK Multi-Role Two-Seater Fighter Aircraft

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 14, 2009

Su 30

Su30

1.Specifications:

Dimensions:

Height
6.355m
Wingspan
14.70m
Span of Foreplane
6.40m
Length Excluding Probes
23.335m

Weights:

Empty Weight
17,700kg
Fuel
5,090kg
Maximum Fuel
9,400kg
Take-off Weight
26,090kg
Maximum Take-off Weight
38,000kg
Maximum External Payload
8,000kg

Engines:

Type
2 x Saturn AL-37FP thrust vectoring engines
Thrust
83.4kN
Thrust With Afterburn
142.2kN

Performance:

Maximum Level Speed
2.35 Mach, 2,150km/hr
Maximum Rate of Climb
13,800m/min
Maximum Altitude
17,500m
Combat Range
3,000km
Range With Single In-flight Refuelling
5,200km
Take-off Run
550m
Landing Run
670m

2.Introductions:

The Sukhoi Su-30M is a multi-role two-seater fighter, broadly comparable to the American F-15E. The Su-30MK is the export version of the aircraft. The fighter is a development of the Su-27 (Flanker) family, designed by the Sukhoi Design Bureau of Moscow and is manufactured by the Irkut Corporation.

The aircraft is equipped with similar avionics and thrust vectoring as the Su-37, for superior combat agility and manoeuvrability. The aircraft is armed with precision anti-surface missiles and has a stand-off launch range of 120km.

The Indian Air Force ordered 40 aircraft in 1996 and an additional ten aircraft in 1998. 18 Su-30K have been delivered which will be upgraded to MKI standard, starting in 2006.

“The Sukhoi
Su-30M is a multi-role two-seater fighter, broadly comparable to the American
F-15E.”

First deliveries of ten Su-30MKI full specification aircraft with thrust vectoring and phased array radar took place in September 2002 and deliveries were completed in December 2004.

Hindustani Aeronautics (HAL) is also contracted to build 140 aircraft in India between 2003 and 2017, under a licensed production agreement. The first indigenously assembled aircraft was delivered in November 2004.

38 Su-30MKK and 24 navalised Su-30MK2 aircraft, which do not have thrust vectoring capability, are in service with the Chinese Air Force.

In 2003, Malaysia ordered 18 Su-30MKM aircraft. The first two were delivered in May 2007. Four more were delivered in 2007 and four in March 2008 Deliveries are scheduled to conclude by the end of 2008. Also in 2003, Indonesia ordered two Su-30MKK aircraft. A further three Su-30MK2 aircraft were ordered in August 2007.

In March 2006, Algeria placed an order for 28 Su-30MKA aircraft. The first was delivered in December 2007. In July 2006, Venezuela placed a contract for 24 Su-30MKI aircraft. The first eight were delivered in May 2007 and deliveries concluded in August 2008. An order for 12 additional aircraft is planned.

Cockpit

The pilots are seated in tandem. The Su-30MKI for the Indian Air Force is fitted with an avionics suite developed by Ramenskoye Design Bureau (RPKB). The displays include a Thales (formerly Sextant Avionique) VEH3000 head up display and seven liquid crystal multifunction displays, six 127mm×127mm and one 152mm×152mm. The Su-30MKI has a high-accuracy Sagem Totem integrated global positioning system and ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system.

The rear cockpit is fitted with a larger monochromatic screen display for the air-to-surface missile guidance

The Su-30M can be equipped with a Phazotron N010 Zhuk-27 radar or a NIIP N011M BARS pulse Doppler phased array radar. The Su-30MKI is fitted with the N011M, which can track up to 15 targets simultaneously. The sensors include a rear facing radar installed in the tailcone.

Weapons

The aircraft is fitted with a 30mm GSh-301 gun with 150 rounds of ammunition.

The aircraft has 12 hardpoints for external payloads up to 8,000kg and can carry one or two mission pods such as a laser designator or an anti-radiation missile guidance system.

The Malaysian Su-30MKM is fitted with the Thales Damocles laser designator pod.

Air-to-air missiles

The Su-30M, like the Su-30, can engage two airborne targets simultaneously. The aircraft can be armed with up to six medium-range air-to-air missiles such as the R-27RE (Nato codename AA-10C Alamo-C), the R27TE (AA-10D Alamo-D) or the Vympel RVV-AE (AA-12 Adder).

“The Su-30 can be armed with six medium-range air-to-air missiles such as the R-27RE.”

An alternative air-to-air missile fit is two AA-10D Alamo medium-range and six close-range Vympel R-73E (Nato AA-11 Archer) infrared homing missiles.

Air-to-surface missiles

The aircraft has a TV command guidance system. The air-to-surface missile fits include four anti-radiation missiles, six laser-guided short-range missiles or six short-range anti-surface missiles with television controlled homing.

The aircraft has a stand-off launch range of up to 120km. For long-range anti-surface capability the aircraft is armed with two TV command guided missiles such as the Kh-29 (AS-14 Kedge) with a 317kg penetrating warhead, the Zvezda Kh-31A (AS-17 Krypton) or the Raduga Kh-59M (AS-18 Kazoo).

For anti-surface ship missions the aircraft is armed with a one Raduga 3M80E Moskit supersonic anti-ship missile.

Indian Su-30MKI fighters are to be fitted with the Brahmos cruise missile, jointly developed by India and Russia. Brahmos has a range of 290km and a warhead of up to 350kg.

Munitions

Other possible anti-surface weapon fits include bombs, rockets and rocket pods. The aircraft can carry AB-500, KAB-500KR and KAB-1500KR bombs, 80mm and 130mm rocket packs, and S-25 250mm rockets.

Countermeasures

The aircraft’s integrated electronic warfare system includes a Tarang radar warning system, indigenously produced by the Indian Defence R&D Organisation (DRDO), and systems supplied by Israeli manufacturers.

The Malaysian Su-30MKM is fitted with a missile approach warning system and laser warner by Saab Avitronics in South Africa.

Engines

The Su-30MK is powered by two Saturn AL-37FP thrust vectoring engines, as installed on the Su-37 aircraft. The aircraft’s flight control system computes and manages the adjustment of the thrust and the vectoring for each engine. The nozzles are directed through ±15° in pitch. In an emergency, such as a system failure, the nozzles are returned hydraulically to a level flight position.

“Other possible anti-surface weapon fits for the Su-30 include bombs, rockets and rocket pods.”

The aircraft normally carries 5,090kg of fuel in three integral fuel tanks in the fuselage and a single integral split tank with each half installed in the outer wings. The maximum fuel capacity of the aircraft is 9,400kg.

The aircraft is equipped with a flight refuelling probe and a buddy-buddy refuelling system.

The combat range of the aircraft on internal fuel is 3,000km. With a single in-flight refuelling procedure the combat range is extended to 5,200km.

Landing gear

The aircraft has hydraulically retractable tricycle-type landing gear supplied by Hydromash. The main landing gear, fitted with KT-156D single wheels, turns through 90° to retract forward into the bay in the wingroot. The main landing gear is fitted with hydraulically operated carbon disc brakes with an electric brake cooling fan and an anti-skid system.

The single KND-27 nosewheel is hydraulically steerable and is forward retracting. A brake parachute compartment is installed in the tailcone at the rear of the fuselage.

Posted in Aircrafts of Russia | Leave a Comment »

Su-25 Frogfoot (Sukhoi Su 28) Close-Support Aircraft

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 14, 2009

Su25

1.Specifications:

Key Data:

Crew
1 – pilot

Dimensions:

Length
15.53m
Height
4.8m
Wingspan
14.36m

Weights:

Normal Take-Off Weight
14,600kg
Maximum Take-Off Weight
17,600kg

Performance:

Range With 4,400kg Weapon Load and External Tanks
750km
Maximum Speed at Sea Level
975km/h
Service Ceiling
7,000m
Service Ceiling With Full Weapon Load
5,000m
Take-Off Run
750m
Take-Off Run on Carrier Ramp
175m
Landing Roll
600m

2.Introductions:

The Su-25 and Su-28 single-seat, close-support aircraft, known by the NATO reporting name Frogfoot, is manufactured by the Sukhoi Design Bureau Joint Stock Company, based in Moscow, and the Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association, in Novosibirsk, Russia.

The Su-25 is designed to defeat small mobile and stationary ground targets and to engage low-speed air targets at the forward edge and in the nearest tactical and operational depth.

A two-seater variant, Su-35UB (Frogfoot-B), is a weapons training aircraft manufactured at Ulan-Ude. The Su-25UTG is the two-seater aircraft carrier variant fitted with an arrester hook under the tail. The Su-25UTG is deployed on the Russian Navy 50,000-ton aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov.

Variants of the Su-25 are operational with the Russian Air Force, the Russian Naval Aviation forces, Afghanistan, Angola, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Macedonia, North Korea, Peru, the Slovak Republic, Turkmenistan and the Ukraine. The export variant of the aircraft carries the designation Su-25K.

An upgraded version for the Russian Air Force, the Su-25SM entered service in January 2007. The upgrade includes new navigation computer, Pastel countermeasures suite, SUO-39 fire control system and Phazotron Kopyo-25M radar.

SU-25K SCORPION

An upgraded Su-25K, the Scorpion, has been developed by Tbilisi Aerospace Manufacturing (TAM) of Georgia with Elbit of Israel. Scorpion has a new advanced avionics system with a weapon delivery and navigation system for both NATO and Eastern European weapons and pods, and a new glass cockpit with two multicolour LCD displays and a head-up display (HUD).

COCKPIT

The aircraft has an all-welded, 24mm titanium alloy cockpit with transparent windscreen armour block to protect the pilot, and is equipped with a single K-36L Zvezda ejection seat.

WEAPONS

The wings have ten pylons for carrying a range of air-to-air and air-to-ground weapon systems selected for the mission. Air-to-ground missiles include Kh-23 (NATO codename AS-7 Kerry), Kh-25ML (AS-10 Karen) and Kh-29l (AS-14 Kedge). The air-to-air missiles carried on the smaller outboard pylons are the R-3S (AA-2D Atoll) and the R-60 (AA-8 Aphid).

“An upgraded Su-25K, the Scorpion, has been developed.”

The aircraft can be fitted with UB-32A pods for 57mm S-5 rockets, B-8M1 pods for 80mm S-8 rockets, S-24 240mm guided rockets and S-25 330mm guided rockets.

The Su-25 can be armed with 350-670kg laser-guided bombs, 500kg incendiary devices and cluster bombs.

The aircraft’s twin-barrel gun, the 30mm AO-17A, is installed in the underside of the fuselage on the port side. The gun is armed with 250 rounds of ammunition and is capable of firing at a burst rate of 3,000 rounds a minute. SPPU-22 gun pods can also be installed on the underwing pylons. The pods carry the GSh-23 23mm twin-barrel guns, each with 260 rounds of ammunition.

TARGETING

The aircraft is equipped with an integrated navigation and aiming system, including ASP-17 BTs-8 gun / bomb sight with an AKS-750s camera installed in the nose. The nose also houses a Klyon PS laser ranger and target designator, manufactured by the Urals Optical and Mechanical Plant (YOM3).

COUNTERMEASURES

The electronic warfare suite includes an SPO-15 Sirena-3 radar warning receiver and a Gardeniya radar jammer. The ASO-2V decoy dispenser can deploy chaff and flares for protection against radar and infrared guided missiles.

NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATIONS

The aircraft is equipped with an RSBN Tactical Air Navigation system (TACAN), MRP-56P marker beacon receiving unit, RV-1S radio altimeter and various air data and acceleration indicators.

“A two-seater variant, the
Su-35UB (Frogfoot-B), is a weapons training aircraft manufactured at Ulan-Ude.”

The communications systems include an SRO-2 Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) transponder and a SO-69 air traffic control transponder, together with VHF/UHF transceivers and an air-to-ground radio.

ENGINES

The Russian Air Force Su-25 aircraft is powered by two Soyuz / Gavrilov R-195s turbojet engines rated at 44.18kN. Cooling air is introduced at the end of the tail cone to reduce the temperature of the exhaust gases and minimise the infrared signature of the aircraft.

The aircraft is equipped with self-sealing, foam-filled fuel tanks with a total capacity of 3,600l of fuel. The range of the aircraft can be extended by the provision of four PTB-1500 external fuel tanks, which are carried on the underwing pylons.

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Su-24M Fencer Front-Line Bomber

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 14, 2009

SU24M

1.Specifications:

Key Data:

Crew
2 (pilot and navigator)

Dimensions:

Length
22.67m
Height
5.92m
Swept Wingspan
10.36m
Extended Wingspan
17.63m

Weights:

Normal Take-Off Weight
35,910kg
Maximum Take-Off Weight
39,700kg
Normal Combat Load
3,000kg
Maximum Combat Load
8,000kg
Fuel Capacity, Internal Fuel Tanks
9,850kg
Fuel Capacity With 3 External Fuel Tanks
16,460kg

Performance:

Ferry Range With External Fuel Tanks
3,055km
Maximum Speed Near Ground
1,340km/hr
Maximum Speed at an Altitude of 11km
1,550km/h
Service Ceiling
11,000m
Take-Off Run
850m to 900m
Landing Roll
800m to 850m

2.Introductions:

The Su-24M front-line bomber is manufactured by the Sukhoi Design Bureau Joint Stock Company, based in Moscow, and the Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association, Novosibirsk, Russia. The Su-24M entered service in 1983 and is a development of the Su-24, known by the NATO codename ‘Fencer’.

Over 900 Su-24s have been delivered, and the aircraft is in service with the Russian Air Force and Navy, and the air forces of Azerbaijan, Algeria, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Libya, Syria and Ukraine.

The Su-24M front-line bomber is designed to penetrate hostile territory and destroy ground and surface targets in any weather conditions, by day and night. Variants of the Su-24 have also been produced, designed for reconnaissance and electronic countermeasures.

400 Russian Air Force Su-24M are being upgraded to M2 standard with navigation and weapons systems to enable launch of new versions of Kh-29 and other missiles. Upgrades include a new SV-24 computer, liquid crystal displays, ILS-31 head-up display, digital moving map and global positioning system. The Su-24 will be replaced in Russian Air Force service by the Su-35, beginning in 2010.

DESIGN

The aircraft has a conventional aerodynamic configuration with a variable-sweep shoulder wing. The fuselage is of rectangular-section semi-monocoque design, with a two-seat pressurised cockpit. The wing sweepback angle varies from 16° to 69°, with respect to the wing leading edge with four outer-wing panel fixed positions of 16°, 35°, 45° and 69°.

The tail unit comprises all-moving horizontal tail surfaces and a single-fin vertical tail fitted with a rudder. The horizontal tail surfaces function as an elevator when deflecting symmetrically, and as ailerons when deflecting differentially. Tricycle-type landing gear allows the aircraft to be operated from either concrete or unpaved runways.

WEAPONS

The Su-24 is armed with the following types of air-to-surface missiles: Kh-23 or Kh-23M (NATO codename AS-7 Kerry) radio-command guided missiles (range 5km; up to four missiles carried); Kh-28 (AS-9 Kyle) and Kh-58 passive radar-homing missiles (range 90km; up to two missiles carried). Up to two Vympel R-60 (AA-8 Aphid) IR-homing air-to-air missiles with a range of 3km are also carried.

“The Su-24M bomber can carry up to three gun pods with 23mm Gsh-6-23 guns.”

The Su-24M aircraft is armed with: Kh-25L (AS-10 Karen) laser-guided missiles (range 20km; up to four missiles carried); Kh-29LT (AS-14 Kedge) laser / TV-guided missiles (range 10km; up to three missiles carried); Kh-31P (AS-17 Krypton) passive radar-homing missiles (range 180km; up to two missiles carried); and Kh-59 (AS-13 Kingbolt) TV-command-guided missiles (range 90km; up to two missiles carried).

It is also armed with KAB-50OKR TV-guided and KAB-1500L laser-guided air bombs, supplied by the Region State Research and Production Enterprise of Moscow.

Both aircraft can carry up to six rocket pods. The weight of conventional bomb armament amounts to between 7.5t and 8t.

The aircraft can carry up to three gun pods with 23mm Gsh-6-23 guns, which have a rate of fire of 9,000 rounds a minute and fire unit of 500 rounds. Gsh-6-23 guns are manufactured by the Instrument Design Bureau of Tula, Russia.

TARGETING

The Su-24 bomber’s integrated navigation and aiming system is the PNS-24. PNS-24, in conjunction with radio navigation equipment, can perform the following functions: terrain warning; detection of targets and their destruction by level and toss bombing; target designation for missiles; detection of operating radars and launch of missiles on these radars; and automatic and semi-automatic aircraft control during landing approach to a height of 40m to 50m.

The Su-24M aircraft is equipped with the PNS-M modified integrated navigation and aiming system, which includes a laser/TV-sighting system for the air-to-surface laser/TV-guided missiles.

“The Su-24M front-line bomber is designed to penetrate hostile territory and destroy ground and surface targets.”

ENGINES

The power plant comprises two A-F turbojets, with a thrust of 11,200kgf each. Fuel is accommodated in fuselage integral tanks. Two external fuel tanks with a capacity of 3,000l each can be suspended from the centre-wing section, with one external fuel tank, with a capacity of 2,000l, suspended from the fuselage.

An inert gas system is installed for fire safety. The Su-24M aircraft is equipped with a flight refuelling system.

The Su-24M has a maximum speed of 1,550km/h and a range of over 3,000km. The service ceiling is 11,000m and the maximum rate of climb is 9,000m a minute.

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MiG-35 Multirole Fighter Aircraft

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 14, 2009

MIG-35

MIG 35

1.Specificationss:

Key Data:

Crew
1-2
Manufacturer
Mikoyan
First Flight
2007
Number Built
10 as of 2008
Developed From
MiG-29M

Dimensions:

Length
19m (62ft 4in)
Wingspan
15m (49ft 3in)
Height
6m (19ft 8in)

Weights:

Empty Weight
11,000kg
Loaded Weight
17,500kg
Maximum Take-Off Weight
29,700kg

Engines:

Powerplant
2 × Klimov RD-33MK afterburning turbofans
Dry Thrust
5,400kgf, 53.0kN (11,900lbf) each
Thrust with Afterburner
9,000kgf, 88.3kN (19,800lbf) each

Performance:

Maximum speed
Mach 2.5 (2,400km/h, 1,491mph) at altitude
Range
2,000km
Ferry Range
3,100km
Service Ceiling
17,500m
Rate of Climb
330 m/s (65,000 ft/min)
Thrust / Weight
1.14

2.Introductions:

MiG-35 is a new export variant that combines the modern systems of the MiG-29M2 with an AESA radar. The fighter plane has the thrust vectoring of the MiG-29OVT as an additional option. Improved avionics and weapon systems, notably the new AESA radar and the uniquely designed optical locator system (OLS), make the aircraft less dependent on ground-controlled interception (GCI) systems and enables the MiG-35 to conduct independent multirole missions.

MiG-35 is compatible with Russian and foreign-origin weapons applications and an integrated variety of defensive systems to increase combat survivability. The fighter plane is being marketed globally under the designation MiG-35 (single seat) and MiG-35D (dual seat). MiG Corporation made their first official international MiG-35 presentation during Aero India 2007.

AESA radar

MiG-35 will be the first Russian aircraft to be fitted with active electronically scanned array radar. The Zhuk-MA’s antenna consists of 160 modules, each with four receive-and-transmit modules. It is believed to offer a 160km (85nm) air target detection radius and 300km for surface ships.

OLS

Like radar, OLS allows the MiG-35 to detect targets and aim weapon systems. But, unlike radar, OLS has no emissions, meaning it cannot be detected.

“MiG-35 is a new export variant that combines the modern systems of the MiG-29M2 with an AESA radar.”

OLS works like a human eye by getting the picture and later analysing it. NII PP, the federal space agency science and research institute’s engineers have chosen more short-wave bands for the matrix, which has increased sensitivity of the complex several times and has increased detection range.

The OLS on the MiG-35 is considered to help pilots to spot even the USAF’s stealth planes. OLS includes a complex of powerful optics with IR vision that makes it impossible for any plane to hide.

OLS solves the problem of blurred vision. At speed, each piece of dust can cause harm to the glass of the OLS. The new OLS uses leuco-sapphire, the next-hardest material after artificial diamonds, making the lifetime for such glass much longer. According to NII PP engineers, leuco-sapphire is clear for all the OLS emissions and doesn’t corrupt the signal, an important factor for the optical systems.

MiG-35 engines

The MiG-35 is powered by two RD-33MKBs that can be fitted with KliVT swivel-nozzles and a thrust vectoring control (TVC) system. The MiG-35’s combination of TVC and advanced missile-warning sensors gives it the edge during combat.

RD-33 engines generate 7% more power compared to the baseline model due to the modern materials that go into the manufacturing of the cooled blades. The engines provide a higher-that-average thrust of 9,000kgf. RD-33 engines are smokeless and include systems that reduce infrared and optical visibility. The engines may be fitted with vectored-thrust nozzles, which would result in an improvement in combat efficiency.

Russia’s developmental work on thrust vectoring started in 1980s. The Sukhoi and Saturn / Lyulka engine design bureaus led the way, and their efforts resulted in the Su-30 MKI aircraft. The MiG and Klimov engine bureaus began their work in the field of thrust vector engines a little later and aimed at all-aspect thrust vectoring, as opposed to Sukhoi / Saturn’s two dimensional (horizontal / vertical) vectoring.

Klimov achieved all-aspect vectoring with the aid of three hydraulic actuators that deflect the nozzles, and are mounted at 120A° intervals around the engine nacelle. This enabled MiG-35 to fly at very low speeds without angle-of-attack limitations, and ensured that it will also remain controllable in zero-speed and ‘negative-speed’ (tail-forward) areas for sustained periods.

Manoeuvrability

The MiG-35 is a highly manoeuvrable air superiority fighter, which was shown for the first time in August 2005 during the MAKS Air Show outside Moscow. The fighter is powered by RD-33 OVT thrust vectoring control engines. The RD-33 OVT engines provide superior manoeuvrability and enhance the fighter’s performance in close air-to-air engagements.

The MiG-35 presents super-manoeuvrability, a capability to fly at supercritical angles of attack at increased level of sustained and available g-loads and high turn-angle rate, which requires a greater thrust-to-weight ratio and improved wing aerodynamic efficiency.

“The MiG-35 is a highly manoeuvrable air superiority fighter.”

MiG-35 weapons

The aircraft’s suite of guided weapons includes Kh-31A anti-ship missiles with active radar seekers, the Kh-31P anti-radar missiles, Kh-29TE missiles and KAB-500Kr TV-guided bombs. Added, when equipped with an external optical / laser targeting pod, the fighter can use the Kh-29L air-to-surface missiles and KAB-500L laser-guided bombs. These weapons will allow the aircraft to engage aerial and land targets.

Refuelling

An addition of a strap-on tank behind the cockpit has allowed MiG-35 to have a higher internal fuel capacity of 950l. The capacity of the external fuel tank suspended under the fuselage has increased up to 2,000l. Ferry range with three external fuel tanks has also been increased, rising to 3,100km, and with one in-flight refuelling the range will be 5,400km.

The fuel management system has also been digitised, and includes a new digital fuel metering system.

Aero India 2007

The final version of MiG-35 was displayed for the first time at Aero India 2007. The prototype of the MiG-35 had been shown to the public in 2005 at air shows in Russia and the UK. MiG-35 is a contender to the Eurofighter Typhoon, F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, Dassault Rafale, JAS 39 Gripen and F-16 Falcon for the bid of more than 126 multirole combat aircraft to be procured by the Indian Air Force in Indian MRCA competition.

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Mi-8 (Mi 17) Hip Multi-Mission Helicopter

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 14, 2009

Mi-8

1.Specifications:

Key Data:

Combat Equipped Troops
24
Stretcher Patients
12

Dimensions:

Dimensions Without Rotors
18.22m x 4.75m x 4.5m
Main Rotor Diameter
21.29m
Cargo Cabin Length
5.34m
Cargo Cabin Width
2.34m
Cargo Cabin Height
1.8m

Weights:

Normal Take-Off Weight
11,100kg
Maximum Take-Off Weight
12,000kg
Normal Payload Weight
2,355kg
Maximum Payload Weight
4,000kg
Maximum Slung Payload
3,000kg
Empty Weight
6,965kg

Performance:

Normal Flight Speed
250km/h
Cruising Flight Speed
225km/h
Hover Ceiling
800m
Service Ceiling
4,500m
Range With Normal Payload
465km

Mi-8T:

Powerplant
2 x TV2-117
Power
1,500hp
Normal Flight Speed
250km/h
Cruising Flight Speed
225km/h
Hover Ceiling
800m
Service Ceiling
4,500m
Range With Normal Payload
465km

Mi-8MT:

Powerplant
2 x TV3-117MT
Power
1,950hp
Normal Flight Speed
250km/h
Cruising Flight Speed
240km/h
Hover Ceiling
1,760m
Service Ceiling
4,500m
Range With Normal Payload
495km

Mi-8MTV:

Powerplant
2 x TV3-117VMA
Power
2,200hp
Normal Flight Speed
250km/h
Cruising Flight Speed
240km/h
Hover Ceiling
3,980m
Service Ceiling
4,900m
Range With Normal Payload
495km

2.Introductions:

More than 12,000 Mi-8 (NATO codename Hip) multi-purpose helicopters have been produced, with more than 2,800 exported, and they are operational with over 50 air forces worldwide.

The helicopters are manufactured by the Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant JSC in Moscow, the Kazan Helicopter Plant JSC in Kazan and the Ulan-Ude Aviation Plant, and are available in civil and military versions. The military variants include the Mi-8T transport, VIP transport, electronic warfare, reconnaissance, Mi-8TV armed version and the search and rescue Mi-8MPS.

Recent orders include: 40 Mi-8TV helicopters for India fitted with Vikhr-M (AT-16) air-to-surface missiles (delivered by the end of 2001), a number of Mi-17s for Iran, ten for Malaysia, 20 to Columbia, six for India, 12 for Pakistan and 20 for Venezuela (deliveries began February 2006). In February 2005, the Iraqi Air Force ordered ten Mi-17V-5 from Bumar of Poland. In December 2005, the Czech Army received 16 Mi-17SH helicopters as part of a debt settlement with Russia. These helicopters have been donated to the Army of Afghanistan. The first three were handed over in December 2007.

In November 2006, the Indian Air Force announced the procurement of a further 80 Mi-17-1V helicopters for delivery in 2007-2008 and a planned procurement of 197 helicopters for the Indian Army.

In July 2002, Kazan signed an international marketing agreement with BAE Systems of the UK and Kelowna Flightcraft of Canada for an upgraded version, the Mi-172 medium-utility and transport helicopter. The Mi-172 has a new mission system from BAE Systems Avionics, new glass cockpit with Honeywell electronic flight instrument system and BAE Systems’ Titan 385 stabilised multi-sensor turret. The upgraded helicopter has been ordered by the Kazakhstan Air Force.

In 2007, Croatia placed an order for 10 Mi-171Sh helicopters as part of the discharge of debt owed to Croatia by the Russian Federation. The first two were delivered in December 2007.

M-17 HIP MULTIMISSION HELCOPTER

The improved version of the Mi-8 is the Mi-17 Hip multi-purpose helicopter, also known as the Mi-8TMB. It is specifically designed for improved capabilities at high altitudes and in hot weather conditions.

The Mi-17 is identifiable from the Mi-8 by the additional air filters on the turbine air intakes, as well as left hand side mounted tail rotor, required by the more powerful TB-3-117A turboshaft engines it is fitted with.

MI-8T TRANSPORT HELICOPTER

The Mi-8T military-transport helicopter is configured with a conventional pod and boom, with a tail rotor and non-retractable tricycle nosewheel landing gear. The five-bladed rotor is made from aluminium alloy.

The cockpit accommodates three crew: commander, navigator and flight mechanic. The cockpit and the main cabin are heated and air conditioning is optional. An oxygen system is provided for the crew and for casualties in the ambulance and rescue variants of the helicopter.

“The Mi-8’s external cargo sling is rated to carry 3,000kg.”

The survivability features of the Mi-8 include crew cabin armour plating, explosive-resistant foam filling in the fuel tanks, a fire-fighting system and duplicated and standby hydraulic and power systems and main control circuits. De-icing systems are installed.

MI-8 CARGO SYSTEMS

The helicopter’s landing-transport equipment can be used to load light towed combat material and armament via winches and to rescue people from the ground or from the sea by an electrically operated hoist (200kg capacity).

The cabin has cargo tie-down points on the floor. Ramps are provided for loading vehicles. The cabin can accommodate twelve litters (stretchers). The external cargo sling is rated to carry 3,000kg.

KLIMOV TURBOSHAFT ENGINES

The Mi-8T helicopter is powered by two Klimov TV2-117 turboshafts engines. Deflectors are installed on the engine air intakes to prevent ingestion of dust when taking off from unprepared pads. The helicopters also have an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for self-contained operations.

The helicopter carries 1,870l of fuel in two flexible internal tanks and two external tanks. The total fuel capacity can be increased to 3,700l by installing up to two ferry tanks in the cabin.

MI-8TV ARMED HELICOPTER

The armed variant, designated Mi-8TV, is fitted with 7.62mm built-in machine guns and six external weapons racks with S-5 rockets. The helicopter can also deploy AT-2 Swatter 9M 17P Skorpion anti-tank missiles. The helicopter’s weapon sighting system is the PKV collimating sight. Mi-8TV is also capable of laying minefields.

The armed Mi-8TV helicopters are fitted with more powerful TV3-117VMA engines, which give an improved hovering ceiling (3,950m compared to the 1,760m of the Mi-8MT). The maximum slung payload of the armed helicopter is increased to 4,000kg.

A Hot Brick infrared jammer can be fitted, and six ASO-2V flare dispensers are installed: three to the port and three to the starboard side of the fuselage.

MI-8MPS SEARCH AND RESCUE HELICOPTER

“The armed Mi-8TV helicopters are fitted with more powerful TV3-117VMA engines.”

The Mi-8MPS search and rescue helicopter was developed from the military transport helicopter. In rescue missions, the helicopter crew drop radio-beacons to mark the distress area and deliver rescue teams to aid and recover the casualties.

The helicopter can lift ten people at a time on a sling via a PSN-10 life raft and is provided with an emergency landing device that ensures buoyancy for up to 30 minutes.

The fuselage of the Mi-8MPS incorporates specific modifications for search and rescue missions, including a larger entrance door, two starboard hatches, a raft container and external additional fuel tanks. Other equipment includes PNKV-8PS pilot/navigation system, YuR-40.1 radar system, TAPAS thermal search and rescue equipment, an airborne jib with LPG-300 winch and scoop

SPACECRAFT RECOVERY

For spacecraft recovery the Mi-8MPS helicopter delivers operational and technical groups with rescue equipment to the landing zone.

Instrument and visual search methods are used to locate spacecraft returning from space missions and parachuting into landing zones. The helicopter is used to recover the cosmonaut and return him to base. Space objects weighing up to 3,000kg are transported by sling to the nearest aerodrome.

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