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Tejas Light Combat Supersonic Fighter

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 15, 2009

Tejas Light Combat Supersonic Fighter





Empty Weight
Approximate Take-Off Weight
External Payload
More than 4,000kg


Prototype Aircraft
1 x GE F404-GE-F2J3 turbofan engine with afterburn
Production Aircraft
1 x GE F404-GE-IN20 turbofan engine, rated at 85kN


Maximum Speed
Mach 1.8
Maximum Altitude
+9g to –3.5g


Burst Firing Rate
50 rounds a second
Muzzle Velocity


The Tejas single-seat, single-engine, lightweight, high-agility supersonic fighter aircraft has been undergoing flight trials in preparation for operational clearance, and by mid 2005 had flown over 400 flights up to speeds of Mach 1.4. The Tejas light combat aircraft design and development programme is being led by the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) of the Indian Department of Defence with Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) as the prime industrial contractor.

The first LCA Demonstrator I aircraft made a maiden flight in January 2001. The LCA Demonstrator II first flew in June 2002. The second prototype vehicle (PV-II) made a maiden flight in December 2005 and the third in December 2006. The Indian government approved limited series production of 20 Tejas for the Air Force in April 2006.

First flight of the production aircraft was in April 2007. Tejas is planned to achieve initial operating capability (IOC) in 2008 and enter service in 2011. The trainer variant is scheduled for first flight in 2009.

“Tejas is a single-seat, single-engine, lightweight, high-agility supersonic fighter aircraft.”

Tejas, the smallest lightweight, multirole, single-engined tactical fighter aircraft in the world, is being developed as a single seat fighter aircraft for the Indian Air Force and also as a two-seat training aircraft. In November 2008, the Indian Air Force confirmed a requirement for 140 Tejas aircraft to equip seven squadrons.

The design of a carrier-borne Tejas in single-seat and two-seat versions with a modified nose, strengthened landing gear and an arrestor hook was granted approval in 1999. The carrier variant has retractable canards and adjustable vortex control.

The development programme for the carrier-borne versions was agreed by the Indian government in 2002 and the first flights of two prototype aircraft are scheduled for late 2009. The carrier variant may replace the fleet of Sea Harriers.

The Indian Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) is carrying out a conceptual design study of the ADA medium combat aircraft, which will be an advanced, stealthy version of the Tejas, to replace the Indian Air Force Jaguar and Mirage 2000 fleet. The medium combat aircraft has two engines with fully vectoring nozzles and no vertical or horizontal tail.

Delta planform design

The aircraft is of delta planform design with shoulder-mounted delta wings. The aircraft has a fin but no horizontal tail. Lightweight materials including aluminium and lithium alloys, titanium alloys and carbon composites have been used in the construction. The wing structure includes composite spares and ribs with a carbon fibre-reinforced plastic skin.

The National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), based in Bangalore, has designed and is responsible for the manufacture of the fin and the rudder and the construction of the aircraft fuselage.

Tejas cockpit

The aircraft is fitted with a night vision compatible glass cockpit with Martin Baker (UK) zero-zero ejection seats.

The cockpit has two 76mm×76mm colour liquid crystal multi-function displays developed by Bharat Electronics, a head up display developed by the Indian government-owned Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIO) in Chandigarh, a liquid crystal return-to-home-base panel and keyboard. The pilot also has a helmet-mounted display.

“Tejas is the smallest lightweight, multi-role, single-engine tactical fighter aircraft in the world.”

The aircraft has a quadruplex fly-by-wire digital automatic flight control. The navigation suite includes Sagem SIGMA 95N ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system with an integrated global positioning system.

The communications suite includes VHF to UHF radio communications with built-in counter-countermeasures, air-to-air and air-to-ground data links and a HAL information friend-or-foe interrogator. The cockpit is fitted with an environmental control system developed by Spectrum Infotech of Bangalore. The avionics suite has an integrated utility health-monitoring system.

Fighter weapons

The aircraft has eight external hardpoints to carry stores, with three under each wing, one on the centre fuselage and one installed under the air intake on the port side. A 23mm twin barrelled GSh-23 gun with a burst firing rate of 50 rounds a second and muzzle velocity of 715m a second is installed in a blister fairing under the starboard air intake.

The aircraft can be armed with air-to-air, air-to-ground and anti-ship missiles, precision-guided munitions, rockets and bombs. Electronic warfare, targeting, surveillance, reconnaissance or training pods can be carried on the hardpoints. Drop tanks can also be carried.

In October 2007, the Tejas successfully test-fired the R-73 air-to-air missile. The Vympel R-73 (Nato codename AA-11 Archer ) missile is an all-aspect short-range missile with cooled infrared homing. The missile can intercept targets at altitudes between 0.02km and 20km, g-load to 12g, and with target speeds of up to 2,500km/h.


The aircraft’s electronic warfare suite, developed by the Advanced Systems Integration and Evaluation Organisation (ASIEO) of Bangalore, includes a radar warning receiver and jammer, laser warner, missile approach warner, and chaff and flare dispenser.


The Electronics Research and Development Establishment and HAL have jointly developed the aircraft’s multi-mode radar. The radar has multiple target search and track-while-scan and ground-mapping modes of operation. The radar incorporates pulse Doppler radar with Doppler beam shaping, moving target indication and look-up / look-down capability. The radar is mounted in a Kevlar radome.

Turbofan engines

The prototype development aircraft are fitted with General Electric F404-GE-F2J3 turbofan engines with afterburn. Production aircraft will be fitted with one General Electric 85kN F404-GE-IN20 turbofan engine with full authority digital engine control. HAL placed an order for 24 F404-GE-IN20 engines in February 2007.

“Tejas can be armed with air-to-air, air-to-ground and anti-ship missiles, precision-guided munitions, rockets and bombs.”

LSP-2 (limited series production 2) will be the first aircraft to be fitted with the engine. Flight trials with the production engine began in June 2008.

It was planned that a new turbofan engine, the GTX-35VS Kaveri, under development by Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE), would be fitted to the production aircraft, but delays in development led to the purchase of the General Electric engines. Snecma-Larzac has been chosen as the industrial partner in the engine development.

The Kaveri engine develops 52kN dry power and 80.5kN with afterburn. The aircraft will use multi-axis thrust vectoring nozzles. The engine has Y-duct air intakes.

The aircraft has wing and fuselage tanks and an in-flight refuelling probe on the front starboard side. Drop tanks with a capacity up to 4,000l, can be carried on the inner and mid-board wing and fuselage centreline hardpoints.

The aircraft is fitted with a HAL gas turbine starter unit model GTSU-110.

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HJT-36 Sitara Intermediate Jet Trainer

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 15, 2009






Maximum Take-Off Weight
Take-Off Weight, No External Payload
External Payload


Prototype Aircraft
Snecma Larsac 04-H20, rated 14.12kN
Series Production Aircraft
Saturn AL-55, rated 16.68kN
1,150l, 917kg


+7g to –2.5g
Maximum Operating Speed
960km/h, Mach 0.8
Maximum Level Speed
700km/h, Mach 0.58
Maximum Dive Speed
824km.h, Mach 0.69
Service Ceiling
3 hours


The intermediate jet trainer, designated HJT-36, is known in India as the Sitara (‘Star’). Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) started design work on the intermediate jet trainer in 1997. The concept was initially developed as a successor to the successful Kiran trainer for the Indian Air Force and Navy. HAL was awarded a contract in 1999 by the government of the Republic of India for the completion of development, testing and certification of two prototype IJT aircraft.

In February 2003, a contract for an initial 16 trainers for the Indian Air Force was placed. An Indian Air Force demand for 200 to 250 aircraft is envisaged with a market potential for higher numbers. Two prototype aircraft have been built. Over 280 flights have been completed by the aircraft. The HJT-36 is scheduled to enter service with the Indian Air Force in 2010.

Construction of the first prototype, the S3466, started in 2002 and it completed its first flight in March 2003. The second prototype aircraft, the S3474, completed its first flight in March 2004. The HJT-36 took part in the air display at Farnborough International Air Show in 2006. At the Aero-India air show in February 2007 in Bangalore, whilst taking part in the air display, the first prototype crashed on the runway when taking off.

The aircraft provides high-speed training for pilots entering level II training. The maximum operating speed is Mach 0.8 and the g-limits are from +7g to –2.5g. The service ceiling for the trainer is 12,000m (39,370ft).

HJT-36 design

The aircraft is of light alloy and composite construction, using a conventional low wing design with a sweptback wing of 9.8m span and 18° leading edge sweepback.

About a quarter of the aircraft’s line replaceable units are common with the HAL Tejas trainer aircraft.

The aircraft is fitted with hydraulically retractable tricycle-type landing gear. The single-wheeled main units retract inward and the twin nose wheel unit retracts forward.

Training cockpit

The cockpit uses a conventional tandem two-seat configuration with the trainee pilot forward and the instructor in the raised seat to the rear. The single-piece canopy gives the pilots good, all-round vision. The seats are lightweight zero-zero ejection seats, model K-36LT manufactured by Zvesda. The pilots have both conventional and manual flight controls.

“The HJT-36 is scheduled to enter service with the Indian Air Force in 2008.”

The aircraft has a full glass cockpit and digital avionics. The cockpit layout conforms to the style of current-generation combat aircraft.

Smiths Aerospace was contracted to supply the integrated avionics system, which includes open systems architecture mission computer, an attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) and air data computers.

The cockpits are equipped with active matrix liquid crystal displays supplied by Thales. The instructor’s station in the rear cockpit has a data entry display panel.

The avionics suite includes a head-up display and head-up display repeater unit supplied by Elop. The aircraft has cockpit communications and dual VHF and UHF communications.

HJT-36 weapons

The aircraft has five external hardpoints for carrying weapon systems. There is one centreline hardpoint under the fuselage and two weapon pylons under each wing for carrying rocket and gun pods and bombs. The maximum external payload is 1,000kg.

Turbofan engine

The ITJ engine is installed in the rear section of the fuselage and fitted with a bifurcated air intake. The aircraft carries 1,150l, 917kg of usable fuel in the fuselage and wing tanks.

The prototype aircraft are powered by a Snecma Larzac 04-H-20 turbofan non-afterburning engine developing 14.12kN.

“Two prototype HJT-36 Sitara aircraft have been built.”

In the summer of 2004, Hindustan Aeronautics announced the selection of the Saturn AL-55 turbofan engine rated at 16.68kN for the production series intermediate jet trainer. The AL-55 engine is being developed by NPO Saturn and produced at the Ufa Engineering Building Association (UMPO) in Russia.

An agreement between the governments of India and Russia for the licensed production of the AL-55I engine in India was reached in August 2005. The agreement included assistance in setting up the AL-55I production facilities at HAL’s aeroengineering centre at Koraput. The first AL-55I engine was delivered in June 2008.

The aircraft is fitted with a 9kW starter generator and two nickel cadmium 43Ah batteries.

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