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767 AWACS

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 14, 2009

767awacs

1.Specifications:

Key Data:

Primary Function
Airborne surveillance and command and control
Crew
21 mission specialists
Flight Crew
2
AWACS Officers
19
AWACS 767 Aircraft Designation
767-27C
Japan Air Self-Defence Force Aircraft Designation
E-767
Armament
None

Dimensions:

Wingspan
47.57m (156ft 1in)
Length
48.51m (159in 2in)
Height
15.85m (52ft)
Radome Diameter
9.1m (30ft)
Radome Height
1.8m (6ft)

Engines:

Powerplant
2 x General Electric CF6-80C2B6fA engines
Thrust
61,500lb

Performance:

Speed
Over 800km/h (500mph)
Service Ceiling
10,360m to 12,222m (34,000ft to 40,100ft)
Endurance
9.25 hours on station at 1,000nm radius
13 hours at 300nm radius
Extended endurance operations possible with air refuelling
Maximum Take-Off Weight
175,000kg (385,000lb)

2.Introductions:

The Boeing 767 AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System has been selected by Japan to carry out airborne surveillance and command and control (C2) operations for tactical and air defence forces. The surveillance system is based on a flexible, multi-mode radar, which enables AWACS to separate maritime and airborne targets from ground and sea clutter radar returns.

Production of the 707 airframe, which has been used since 1977 for the E3 AWACS, ended in May 1991. Following studies of the most suitable follow-on aircraft for the AWACS mission, Boeing announced in December 1991 that it would offer a modified Boeing 767 jet as the platform for the system.

Aircraft No. 1 and No. 2 were delivered to the company’s first customer, the government of Japan, in March 1998. The final two aircraft were delivered in January 1999. All four aircraft entered service with the Japanese Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) in May 2000.

“The Boeing 767 AWACS carries out airborne surveillance and command and control (C2) operations for tactical and air defence forces.”

The aircraft is flown by two pilots rather than four aircrew as on the E3 AWACS. There are 18 AWACS mission crew led by a mission director and a tactical director.

767 AIRFRAME

The wide-body configuration of the 767 offers 50% more floor space and nearly twice the volume of the 707. The basic 767 airplane is manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplane Group in Everett, Washington, and then flown to Boeing Information, Space & Defense Systems facilities in Wichita, Kansas, where the airframe is modified to accommodate the prime mission equipment. All aircraft are returned to the Boeing Seattle facility, where mission equipment and the rotodome are installed.

Major subcontractors include Northrop Grumman, General Electric, Rockwell Collins and Telephonics, which have been involved in the previous Boeing AWACS programs.

RADAR

The antenna systems for primary radar and the Information Friend or Foe (IFF) interrogator are mounted in a 9.1m diameter circular radome above the aircraft fuselage. The primary radar is the AN/APY-2, developed for E3 AWACS by Northrop Grumman in Baltimore. The radar operates at about 10GHz (wavelength about 10cm) in the E/F bands. It scans mechanically in azimuth at six revolutions per minute, and electronically in elevation. In flight, when the radar is not operational, the slip rings and bearings are kept lubricated by rotating the radome at one cycle every four minutes.

“At operating altitude AWACS can detect targets over 320km away.”

The main modes of operation of the radar are: pulse Doppler non-elevation scan; pulse Doppler elevation scan; beyond-the-horizon mode; maritime mode for detection of surface ships; combined operational modes using data interleaving for long-range detection; and passive mode operation in which the transmitters are switched off for radar-silent operations.

The AWACS radar provides a 360° view of the area. At operating altitudes it can detect targets more than 320km away. Targets are separated and individually managed and displayed on situational displays.

In May 2006, Japan requested the Foreign Military Sale of four Radar System Improvement Program (RSIP) kits, as fitted on USAF, UK and NATO E-3 AWACS. Northrop Grumman was awarded the contract for the upgrade in December 2006. The RSIP upgrades the capability against threats from small radar cross section targets, cruise missiles and electronic countermeasures.

The improvement in sensitivity against small and stealthy targets is being achieved through a new surveillance radar computer to replace the digital Doppler processor and radar correlator, and the translation of the associated software into ADA language.

MISSION EQUIPMENT

The main AWACS operations cabin behind the flight deck is laid out in equipment bays for communications, data and signal processing, navigation, and identification equipment. The AWACS officers and operator stations are equipped with Hazeltine command and control consoles fitted with high-resolution colour displays. The main signal and data processing computer, Lockheed Martin CC-2E, has a main storage capacity of over three million words; five times larger than that of the CC-2 computers installed on the E3 AWACS aircraft.

The AWACS mission equipment on the 767 AWACS takes advantage of the combat-proven avionics currently employed on-board operational AWACS aircraft, and is interoperable with the AWACS aircraft currently in service.

“The AWACS radar provides a 360° view of the area.”

The aircraft’s navigation system is based on two LN-100G inertial navigation systems with integrated satellite global positioning systems, supplied by Northrop Grumman (formerly Litton).

ENGINES

The aircraft is powered by two General Electric CF6-80C2B6FA turbofan engines, providing 61,500lb thrust. The more powerful engines on the 767 AWACS compared to the 707/E3 AWACS allow the aircraft to carry a heavier payload, have a greater range and to fly higher.

Two electrical generators are fitted on each of the two engines, producing a total of 600kW.

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F2

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 14, 2009

F2

F 2

1.Specifications:

Dimensions:

Wingspan
10.8m
Span of Tailplane
6.05m
Length
15.52m
Height
4.96m

Weights:

Empty Weight
12,000kg
Internal Fuel Capacity
3,600kg

Performance:

Maximum Speed
Mach 2
Combat Radius
833km

2.History:

The F-2 support fighter aircraft for the Japan Air Self Defence Force (JASDF) is the result of a joint Japan and USA development programme. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries is the prime contractor and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company serves as the principal US subcontractor. The F-2A is the single-seat version and F-2B is the two-seat version.

The Japan Defence Agency originally planned to procure a total of 130 F-2 aircraft (83 single-seat and 47 two-seat aircraft) with deliveries to beyond 2010, but, in early 2007, this number was reduced to 94.

The initial order was for 81 aircraft. A further five were ordered in March 2007.

“The F-2 fighter aircraft can also carry 500lb bombs, CBU-87/B cluster bombs and rocket launchers.”

In 1987, the JASDF selected a variant of the F-16C as the Japanese FS-X aircraft to replace the Mitsubishi F-1 aircraft, and in 1988 Mitsubishi was selected as prime contractor for the aircraft, which became known as the F-2. The programme involved technology transfer from the USA to Japan, and responsibility for cost sharing was split 60% by Japan and 40% by USA.

Four flying prototypes were developed, along with two static prototypes for static testing and for fatigue tests. Flight trials of the prototypes were successfully completed by 1997, and the aircraft entered production in 1998.

The first production aircraft was delivered to the Japanese Defense Agency in September 2000 and over 49 F-2 fighters have been delivered. The aircraft are being assembled at Mitsubishi’s Komaki South Plant in Nagoya.

In June 2007, the F-2 made its first overseas deployment to Andersen AFB in Guam for joint US / Japan exercises. The F-2 dropped live weapons for the first time during the exercises.

F-2 DESIGN

Kawasaki is responsible for the construction of the midsection of the fuselage, and also the doors to the main wheel and the engine. Mitsubishi builds the forward section of the fuselage and the wings.

Mitsubishi has also designed the lower-wing box structure, which includes lower skin, spars, ribs and cap, and is made from graphite-epoxy composite and co-cured together in an autoclave. This is the first application of co-cured technology to a production tactical fighter.

Fuji manufactures the upper-wing surface skin, the wing fairings, the radome, flaperons and the engine air-intake units and the tail section. Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company supplies the rear section of the fuselage, the port-side wing boxes and the leading-edge flaps.

COCKPIT

The cockpit is equipped with three multifunction displays, including a liquid crystal display from Yokogawa. The pilot’s head-up display was developed by Shimadzu.

INTEGRATED WEAPONS SYSTEM

The aircraft’s integrated electronic warfare system, mission computer and active phased array radar were developed by Mitsubishi Electric.

An M61A1 Vulcan 20mm multi-barrel gun is installed in the wing root of the port wing. There are 13 hardpoints for carrying weapon systems and stores: one on the fuselage centreline, one on each wing-tip and five under each wing. The stores management system is supplied by Lockheed Martin.

There are two Frazer Nash common rail launchers manufactured by Nippi. The aircraft is capable of deploying the Raytheon AIM-7F/M medium-range Sparrow air-to-air missile, the Raytheon AIM-9L short-range Sidewinder and the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries AAM-3 short-range air-to-air missile.

The F-2 is armed with the ASM-1 and ASM-2 anti-ship missiles. Mitsubishi started developing the Type 80 series anti-ship missiles, ASM-1 and ASM-2, in 1980, originally for the F-1 fighter.

The fighter aircraft can also carry 500lb bombs, CBU-87/B cluster bombs and rocket launchers. The centreline and the inner-wing hardpoints can carry drop tanks with a 4,400kg fuel capacity.

“In June 2007, the F-2 made its first overseas deployment to Andersen AFB in Guam for joint US / Japan exercises.”

AVIONICS AND FLIGHT CONTROLS

Lockheed Martin is responsible for the avionics systems. The aircraft’s digital fly-by-wire system has been developed by Japan Aviation Electric and Honeywell (formerly Allied Signal) under a joint development agreement.

The fly-by-wire modes include control augmentation, static stabilisation and load control during manoeuvres.

COMMUNICATIONS

The communications systems fitted in the F-2 are the AN/ARC-164 transceiver, operating at UHF band and supplied by Raytheon, a V/UHF transceiver supplied by NEC, a Hazeltine information friend or foe interrogator, and an HF radio, developed and supplied by Kokusai Electric.

TURBOFAN ENGINE

The aircraft is equipped with a General Electric F110-GE-129 afterburning turbofan engine. The engine develops 131.7kN and the speed of the aircraft is Mach 2.

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