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Archive for Tháng Bảy, 2009

A400M (Future Large Aircraft) Tactical Transport Aircraft

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 21, 2009






Maximum Take-Off Weight
Maximum Landing Weight
Operating Empty Weight
Maximum Payload
Total Internal Fuel


4 x TP400-D6 turboprop
Over 11,000shp each


Cruise Speed
Mach 0.68 to 0.72
Maximum Operating Speed
300kt CAS
Range at Maximum Payload
30t Payload Range
20t Payload Range
Maximum Operating Altitude
Tanker Performance Characteristics
2-point role-convertible tanker/transporter
Fuel Capacity
46.7t or 58t with two cargo bay fuel tanks

Cargo Box Dimensions:

Length (Excluding Ramp)
Ramp Length
Height (Aft of Wing)
Cargo Box Capacity



The A400M (formerly known as the future large aircraft) is a military transporter designed to meet the requirements of the air forces of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

A European staff target was drawn up in 1993, together with a memorandum of understanding signed by the governments of the seven nations. Italy subsequently withdrew from the programme. Airbus Military SL of Madrid, a subsidiary of Airbus Industrie, is responsible for management of the A400M programme.

Other companies with a share in the programme are: BAE Systems (UK), EADS (Germany, France and Spain), Flabel (Belgium) and Tusas Aerospace Industries (Turkey). Final assembly will take place in Seville, Spain.

“The A400M (formerly known as the future large aircraft) is a military transporter.”

In May 2003, a development and production contact was signed between Airbus and OCCAR, the European procurements agency for 180 aircraft: Belgium seven, France 50, Germany 60, Luxembourg one, Spain 27, Turkey ten and the UK 25 aircraft. First metal cut for the airframe of A400M was in January 2005 and final assembly began in August 2007. The first aircraft was rolled out in June 2008 and was scheduled to make its maiden flight in late 2008. However problems with the propulsion system have resulted in a delay and first flight is expected in the second half of 2009.

First deliveries to the French Air Force are planned for late 2010. Deliveries are expected to conclude in 2025.

In April 2005, South Africa signed a contract with Airbus Military to be a full participant in the A400M programme. South Africa will order between eight and 14 aircraft, for delivery between 2010 and 2014. In July 2005, Chile signed a letter of intent with Airbus Military for up to three A400M. In December 2005, Malaysia signed a contract for the purchase of four A400M.

Total firm orders for the A400M stand at 192 aircraft.

A400M design

The A400M has a much larger payload than the C-160 Transall and C-130 and the design makes extensive use of composite materials. The capability for short soft field landing and take-off is part of the requirement and the aircraft has six-wheel high-flotation main landing gear.

The need for airdrops and tactical flight requires good low-airspeed flight and the aircraft also has long-range and high-cruise speed for rapid and flexible deployment.

“The A400M has a much larger payload than the C-160 Transall and

Final assembly of the composite (carbon-reinforced plastic – CRP) wingbox is taking place at Airbus UK in Filton. GKN Aerospace of the UK is to supply the complex carbon composite wing spars. Denel Aviation of South Africa is the supplier for the fuselage top shells and wing-fuselage fairings. EADS, Augsburg, is supplying the 7m×4m composite cargo door.

Fuselage assembly is at Airbus Deutschland in Bremen. Final assembly of the aircraft will take place at EADS CASA in Seville.


The cockpit is fully night-vision compatible and provides accommodation for two pilots and an additional crew member for special mission equipment operation. It will be fitted with a fly-by-wire flight control system developed for the Airbus range of civil airliners. Two sidestick controllers are installed to allow the pilot an unrestricted view of the electronic flight displays. The throttle controls are placed centrally between the two pilot stations.

Thales and Diehl Avionik Systeme are developing the A400M’s FMS400 flight management system, based on integrated modular avionics modules, an adaptation of systems being fitted on the Airbus A380 airliner. The avionics will include cockpit control and display systems with nine 6in×6in displays and a digital head-up display which features liquid crystal display (LCD) technology and enhanced vision systems (EVS), for enhanced situational awareness.

A400M for Germany will be fitted with a terrain-masking low-level flight (TMLLF) system, from EADS Military Aircraft, for low-level flight control. The TMLLF system has a Saab Avitronics flight computer. EADS Defence & Security Systems digital map generator is also being fitted.

There is a military mission management system (MMMS), from EADS Defence Electronics, which includes two mission computers. The MMMS controls cargo handling and delivery, calculating the load plan and the computed air release point before an air drop, as well as fuel management and fuel operational ranges. The MMMS also manages the tactical ground collision avoidance system (T-CGAS) and military / civil communications.

“The A400M cockpit is fully night-vision compatible and accommodates two pilots and an additional crew member.”

Rockwell Collins has been selected to supply the HF-9500 high-frequency communications system and the avionics full duplex ethernet (ADFX). Cobham Antennas Division will provide the SATCOM antennas.


The EADS Defence Electronics defensive aids suite will include an ALR-400 radar warner from Indra and EADS, MIRAS (multi-colour infraRed alerting sensor) missile launch and approach warner developed by EADS and Thales, and chaff and flare decoy dispensers. A laser DIRCM (directed infrared countermeasure) system may be added later.

The aircraft can also accommodate armour plating crew protection, bulletproof windscreens, engine exhaust treatment for infrared emission reduction, and inert gas explosion retardation and fire retardation in the fuel systems. The wings have hardpoints for the installation of electronic warfare pods and refuelling pods.

Cargo systems

Rheinmetall Defence Electronics is supplying the loadmaster control system for electronic cargo control. Loadmaster consists of a workstation and control panel, eight sidewall lock panels and a crew door panel. It provides efficient ground loading and airborne cargo drops.

The payload requirements include a range of military helicopters and vehicles, heavy engineering equipment, pallets and cargo containers.

The cargo bay can transport up to nine standard military pallets (2.23m×2.74m), including two on the ramp, along with 58 troops seated along the sides or up to 120 fully equipped troops seated in four rows. For Medevac, it can carry up to 66 stretchers and ten medical personnel.

The A400M can air-drop paratroops and equipment either by parachute or gravity extraction. It can air-drop: single load up to 16t; or multiple loads up to 25t total; or 120 paratroops plus a wedge load of 6t; or up to 20 1t containers or pallets.

“The cargo compartment can be configured for cargo, vehicle or troop transport or air drop, or a combination.”

It can also perform simultaneous drops of paratroops and cargo (RAS / wedge or door loads) and very-low-level extraction (VLLE) of a single load up to 6.35t, or multiple loads up to 19t total weight. Gravity extraction can be performed for a single load up to 4t, or multiple loads up to 20t total weight.

The cargo compartment can be configured for cargo, vehicle or troop transport or air drop, a combination of these and for aero-medical evacuation. A single loadmaster is able to reconfigure the cargo compartment for different roles either in flight or on the ground. A powered crane installed in the ceiling area of the rear section of the fuselage has a five-ton capacity for loading from the ground and for cross-loading.

The rear-opening door has full compartment cross-section to allow axial load movement, roll-on and roll-off loading and for the air drop of large loads.


The A400M will be convertible to a tactical tanker, with the ability to refuel a range of aircraft and helicopters within two hours. Flight Refuelling Ltd is supplying the 908E wing pod drogue system, which provides a fuel flow of up to 1,200kg/min for each pod, and the centreline pallet-mounted hose drum unit fitted in the rear cargo bay, which provides a fuel flow of 1,800kg/min.

In addition, up to two cargo bay fuel tanks (CBT), which connect directly to the A400M’s fuel management system, can be fitted. Total fuel capacity is 46.7t or 58t with the CBTs.


The aircraft’s independent navigation system comprises an inertial reference system (IRS) integrated with a global positioning system (GPS). The weather and navigation radar is to be the Northrop Grumman AN/APN-241E, which incorporates windshear measurement and ground mapping capability.

The radio navigation suite includes a pair of instrument landing systems, VHF Omnidirectional Radio ranging (VOR), radio distance measuring equipment (DME), air traffic control (ATC) transponders, automatic direction finders (ADF) and a tactical air navigation unit (TACAN).


In May 2003 Airbus Military selected the three-shaft TP400-D6 turboprop engine, to be manufactured by EuroProp International (EPI). EPI is a consortium formed by Rolls-Royce (UK, Germany), ITP (Spain), MTU (Germany) and Snecma (France). Rolls-Royce will be responsible for overall integration.

The four engines will each have a maximum output over 11,000shp. EPI states that they will be the largest turboprops ever made in the West. The engines will be fitted with FADEC (full authority digital engine control), supplied by BAE Systems and Hispano-Suiza.

“The A400M will be convertible to a tactical tanker, with the ability to refuel a range of aircraft and helicopters.”

Ratier-Figeac SA of France (a business unit of Hamilton Standard of USA) will supply the eight-bladed composite variable pitch FH386 propellers. The propellers will be 5.33m (17.5ft) in diameter and are fully reversing with the capability to back the fully loaded aircraft up a 2% slope. FiatAvio will supply the propeller gearbox.

Electrical power generation systems are being supplied by Aerolec, a joint venture between Thales and Goodrich. The variable frequency generators will provide up to 400kVa.

Landing gear

Messier-Dowty has been chosen as the supplier of both main and nose landing gear. Each main landing gear consists of three independent twin-wheel assemblies, providing six wheels on each side. This allows the plane to land on unprepared runways. The landing gear system will enable the A400M to ‘kneel’ which lowers the rear ramp to facilitate the loading of large vehicles.

The main landing gear shock absorbers maintain a minimum distance from the ground whatever the load. Messier-Bugatti will supply wheels and brakes. The aircraft will have two nose wheels and 12 braked wheels.


Posted in Aircrafts of Europe | Leave a Comment »

A330-200 Future Strategic Tanker Aircraft (FSTA)

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 16, 2009





Cabin Dimensions:



Empty Weight
Take-off Weight
Optional Maximum Take-off Weight
Payload (Not Fuel)
Fuel Capacity


2 x Rolls-Royce Trent 772B
71,100lb thrust each
2 x GE CF6-80E1
72,000lb thrust each


Maximum Speed


Refuelling Speed With Boom Refuelling
444km/hr to 592km/hr
Refuelling Speed With Hose and Drogue
370km/hr to 602km/hr

Cargo Capacity:

Underfloor freight hold
NATO Pallets / Containers
6 (88in x 108in) pallets plus 2 LD3 containers
Civil Pallets / Containers
26 LD3 or 8 (95in x 25in) pallets plus 2 LD3 containers


In January 2004, the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) announced the selection of the AirTanker consortium under a private finance initiative arrangement to provide air-to-air refuelling services for the UK’s Army, Navy and Air Force. The programme is known as the future strategic tanker aircraft (FSTA) programme. In February 2005, AirTanker was confirmed as Preferred Bidder for the FSTA.

In June 2007, the UK MoD approved the private finance intiative (PFI) for 14 A330-200 tankers, under which AirTanker will own and support the aircraft while the RAF will fly the aircraft and have total operational control. In March 2008, the UK MoD placed a 27-year contract for the 14 aircraft to enter service in 2011.

“The A330-200 tanker transporters will replace the RAF’s fleet of 26 VC-10 and Tristar tanker aircraft.”

The AirTanker Consortium is led by EADS with a 40% share, and also includes Cobham (13.33%), Rolls-Royce (20%), Thales (13.33%) and VT Aerospace (13.33%).

The tanker transporters will replace the RAF’s fleet of 26 VC-10 and Tristar tanker aircraft which are approaching the end of operational life.

The MoD air-to-air refuelling programme will cover a 27-year service period and represents the world’s largest defence private financing initiative arrangement. The contract includes options to extend the service for a further period.

The consortium will convert and own the A330-200 multi-role tanker transporter (MRTT) aircraft. The consortium is responsible for certifying and maintaining the aircraft and also for the provision of crew training for the RAF and the provision of sponsored reservist aircrews to supplement RAF crew when required.

In April 2004, Australia also selected the A330-200 MRTT for the AIR 5402 requirement for five aircraft. The MRTT, designated the KC-30B, will replace Australia’s Boeing 707 tanker transporters. In June 2006, Airbus delivered the first A330 platform to EADS CASA in Madrid for conversion. First flight of the KC-30 for Australia was in June 2007. The aircraft are planned to enter service from 2009.

In February 2007, the A330 MRTT was selected by the United Arab Emirates. The contract was placed in February 2008 for three aircraft to enter service from 2011.

In January 2008, Saudi Arabia placed an order for three A330 MRTT aircraft. The aircraft will be fitted with the EADS air refuelling boom system (ARBS) and hose and drogue refuelling pods.

The A330-200 MRTT has a sufficiently high cruise speed and large internal fuel capacity to fly 4,000km, refuel six fighter aircraft en route and carry 43t of non-fuel cargo. Similarly, the aircraft could give away 68t of fuel during two hours on station at a range of 1,000nm.

In February 2008, the KC-30 (since redesignated the KC-45), a tanker based on the A330, was chosen for the US Air Force KC-X next-generation tanker requirement to replace the KC-135. Northrop Grumman led the KC-30 team with EADS as major subcontractor. An appeal by competitor Boeing was upheld and in September 2008, the US Department of Defense cancelled the competition, citing the need to defer any decision for the next presidential administration taking power in January 2008.


The company AirTanker Services Ltd will operate and maintain the fleet of A330-200 MRTT aircraft. VT Group, the support services integrator, will be based at RAF Brize Norton.

On military operations the aircraft will be flown by Royal Air Force aircrew. When not in military service the aircraft can be leased for commercial use and operated by civilian aircrew.

It is envisaged that the fleet will be managed in three groups. A majority will be in full time military service with the RAF. Another group will be in military service during the weekdays, switching to commercial use at the weekend, and the other aircraft will be in full-time commercial use but available to the RAF in times of crisis.

Manufacture and conversion

The standard A330-200 commercial aircraft will be built at the Airbus manufacturing centre at Toulouse. The aircraft are to be transferred to Cobham manufacturing facilities at Bournemouth International Airport, UK, for conversion to the tanker transporter variant and aircraft certification will be carried out by QinetiQ at Boscombe Down.

“The A330-200 MRTT has a sufficiently high cruise speed and large internal fuel capacity to fly 4,000km.”

All the aircraft will be capable of being fitted with two Cobham FRL 900E Mark 32B refuelling pods, one under each wing. Some aircraft will receive a third centreline underbelly refuelling system.

The A330-200 wing shares the same design structure including the strengthened mounting points as that of the four-engine A340 aircraft. The wing positions for mounting the air-to-air refuelling pods therefore require minimal modification.

The aircraft’s fuel system includes the installation of additional pipework and controls.

The baseline commercial aircraft uses a configuration of very high capacity fuel tanks in the wings so modifications to the fuel tanks for the tanker transporter role are not required.

Other than the refuelling systems, the main areas of modifications are the installation of plug-in and removable military avionics, military communications and a defensive aids suite. The military systems will be removed when the aircraft is in commercial non-military use. The passenger cabin and the cargo compartment are not altered.

The lower deck cargo compartment can hold six 88in x 108in Nato standard pallets plus two LD3 containers. The civil cargo load could be 28 LD3 containers or eight 96in×125in pallets plus two LD3 containers.


The aircraft has a maximum fuel capacity of 139,090l or 111t. The high fuel capacity enables the aircraft to fly at longer ranges, to stay on station longer and to refuel more aircraft, which increases the basing options and reduces forces reliance on host nation support. For the UK requirement the aircraft is fitted with a hose and drogue system but will be fitted with a refuelling boom system for the Australian order.

Cobham is providing the air refuelling equipment including the 905E wing pods and a fuselage refuelling unit. Cobham also supplies antennae, cockpit control systems, oxygen and fuel system units and composite components for all Airbus A330 aircraft.

The QinetiQ AirTanker support team carried out an air refuelling trial of the A330-200 aircraft on 28 October 2003. The test involved assessing the handling qualities of the Tornado aircraft flown in a number of representative refuelling positions astern the wing and centreline refuelling stations. The two-hour flight test included various approaches to the refuelling positions and exploring displacements vertically and laterally from the normal refuelling position.

The trial was carried out in between 15,000ft and 20,000ft and at 280kt which is the middle of the Tornado’s refuelling envelope. Within this test envelope there was minimum turbulence in the airflow astern the A330-200 and the Tornado’s handling qualities were very satisfactory in all tested positions.

“The high fuel capacity enables the aircraft to fly at longer ranges, to stay on station longer and to refuel more aircraft.”

Flight deck

The flight deck of the A330 is similar to that of the A340. The tanker transporter aircraft cockpit has a refuelling officer’s station behind the pilot and co-pilot seats.

The electronic flight information system has six large interchangable displays with duplicated primary flight and navigation displays (PFD and ND) and electronic centralised aircraft monitors (ECAM). The pilot and co-pilot positions have sidestick controllers and rudder pedals. The aircraft is equipped with an Airbus future navigation system (FANS-A), including a Honeywell flight management system and Smiths digital control and display system.

The fly-by-wire computer suite includes three flight control primary computers and two flight control secondary computers, all operating continuously.

UK tankers are being fitted with the Northrop Grumman large aircraft infrared countermeasures system (LAIRCM).

Cargo and passengers

Even with a full fuel load, the aircraft has the capacity to carry 43t of cargo. The aircraft can carry up to 285 passengers.


The aircraft for the UK are powered by two Rolls-Royce Trent 772B jet engines, each providing 71,100lb of thrust. The aircraft for Australia are powered by GE CF6-80E1 engines, rated at 72,000lb thrust.

The auxiliary power unit is a Hamilton Sundstrand GTCP 331-350C.

The main four-wheel bogie landing gear, the fuselage centre line twin wheel auxiliary gear and the twin wheel nose units are fitted with Goodyear tyres. The runway length for maximum take-off weight is 2,650m and the ground turning radius is 43.6m.

Posted in Aircrafts of Europe | Leave a Comment »

A310 MRTT Multi-Role Tanker Transport

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 16, 2009




Overall Length
46.66m (153ft 1in)
Height to Top of Tail
15.81m (51ft 10in)
Fuselage Diameter
5.64m (18ft 6in)
43.9m (144ft)


Maximum Ramp Weight
164.9t (363,538lb)
Maximum Take-Off Weight
164t (361,554lb)
Maximum Landing Weight
124t (273,370lb)
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight
114t (251,324lb)
Maximum Non-Fuel Payload
37t (91,600lb)


2 x General Electric CF6-80C2 or Pratt & Whitney PW4152/6
Up to 59,000lb


Maximum Speed
Mach 0.79
Runway Length at 164t Maximum Take-Off Weight
Runway Length at 150t Take-Off Weight
Range With Maximum Passengers
Ferry Range
Fuel Offload Available at Range 1,000nm


The Airbus Industrie A310 MRTT is a wide-bodied multi-role tanker transport aircraft derived from the Airbus A310-300 civil passenger and transport aircraft.

It is powered by either General Electric CF6-80C2 or Pratt and Whitney PW 4152 engines. The A310 MRTT is capable of being readily converted to the following roles: air-to-air refuelling tanker, all-cargo transporter, medical evacuation aircraft, and an all-passenger transporter or combination of VIP, passenger and cargo transporter.

Four A310 MRTT aircraft are in service with the German Air Force. The first took its maiden flight in December 2003 and was delivered in October 2004. The A310 were already in service with the German AF as transports and aircraft conversion for in-flight refuelling was carried out by Airbus Deutschland and Lufthansa Technik.

EADS delivered the first A310 MRTT fitted with a new mission avionics package to the German Air Force in June 2007. The new mission avionics allows the A310 MRTT allocation to the NATO Reaction Forces.

Two A310 aircraft of the Canadian Air Force have been converted to the MRTT configuration. The aircraft are designated CC-150 Polaris. The first was delivered in October 2004.

For the air-to-air refuelling (tanker) role, the aircraft is equipped with five centre fuel tanks or Additional Centre Tanks (ACT), and with hose and drogue pods under the outer wings. The total fuel capacity is up to 96,920l (25,605USgl), which corresponds to 77,500kg (171,000lb).

In an all-cargo transport role, the maximum non-fuel payload is 37t (81,600lb). For the troop transport role, the aircraft can provide up to 214 seats. In a combined cargo / troop transport, 12 pallets and 54 troops can be carried.


The multi-role tanker transport is operated by a flight crew of three for all missions relating to Air-to-Air Refuelling (AAR): two pilots and the AAR operator. The AAR operator station is located in the cockpit just behind the captain. The two pilots have direct access to the majority of the information and controls concerning the AAR operational and safety aspects.

The pilots’ stations are equipped with all interfaces for control and monitoring of the ACT tanks, formation and rendezvous lights, and military avionics. This configuration allows a mission to be carried out with the AAR operator’s station switched off.

“In a combined cargo / troop transport, 12 pallets and 54 troops can be carried.”

The AAR operator’s station is equipped with a fuel control panel, with fuel pump controls and fuel quantity indicators, and a dual pod control panel. The AAR operator is responsible for control of the aircraft’s rendezvous beacons and tanker illumination lights during air-to-air refuelling. The optional external video monitoring system uses infrared floodlighting for day-and-night monitoring of refuelling operations.


The MRTT is capable of transferring 33t of fuel during a 3,000nm trail operation or 40t of fuel at 1,000nm with two hours on station. Fuel transfer during air-to-air refuelling is achieved by using the aircraft’s centre tank as a collector tank. The fuel management system and the centre of gravity computer ensure automatic tank sequencing, centre of gravity control and engine fuel feed control.

A dual refuelling pod system is installed, consisting of two Flight Refuelling Ltd Mk 32B pods mounted on pylons under each wing and a control panel in the AAR operator’s station. The total-fuel-on-board, fuel-for-dispense and individual tank quantities are displayed, together with flow rate, temperature and total fuel transferred during in-flight refuelling. Two aircraft can be refueled at the same time. 15,000l of fuel can be transferred a minute.

A flying boom system can be installed, which is capable of transferring fuel at a rate of 1,200USgl/min. Two central Hose Drum Units (HDU) installed side by side in the lower aft fuselage will each be capable of dispensing 800USgl of fuel a minute.


The fuselage accommodates four separate cargo compartments. The large main deck compartment is loaded though a wide door on the forward left side of the fuselage. The door can be opened to the vertical position to allow loading by crane. The other three cargo compartments are below deck. Containerised and palletised loads with a pallet height up to 96in can be carried. Containers and pallets are moved by an electrically powered drive system and are locked manually.

In an air hospital role, the A310 MRTT can take up to six intensive care units and 56 stretcher cases.

“The MMTT fuselage accommodates four separate cargo compartments.”


The tanker aircraft is equipped with the avionics systems installed in the A310-300 civil aircraft to ensure the operation of the tanker under civil air traffic control. The military avionics systems installed on the tanker are the V/UHF system, an IFF system and an AIR TACAN. The V/UHF system allows the aircraft to operate within the military air space control system.

The avionics suite can include a Global Positioning System (GPS), satellite communications, an Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) and a Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS).

Posted in Aircrafts of Europe | Leave a Comment »

KC-390 Military Transport Plane, Brazil

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 15, 2009



Key Data:

Estimated Investment
Order Date
14th April 2009
Estimated Completion


19 tonnes


Embraer, one of the world’s largest aircraft manufacturers, obtained an order from the Brazilian Air Force for its KC-390 medium-weight military transport jet on 14 April 2009. The new high-wing aircraft is expected to fly in 2012 and enter service in 2015. With the launch of the KC-390, competition in the 20t air transport segment has intensified.

Embraer (Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica SA) has entered into a $1.3bn contract with the Brazilian Air Force (FAB) to provide 23 planes over seven years. Features of the KC-390 will be in compliance with the new National Defense Strategy and meet the needs of the FAB. The new aircraft will replace 22 Lockheed Martin C-130E/H and KC-130 that are currently a part of the FAB.

Embraer president and CEO Frederico Fleury Curado said, “The launch of the KC-390 programme is a new landmark in the historical strategic partnership between the Brazilian Air Force and Embraer.”

“The KC-390 is a medium-weight military transport jet.”

He further stated that the development of the KC-390 will result in an effective cargo and tanker aircraft for the FAB, becoming another successful export platform for both Embraer and Brazil. The KC-390 is expected to change the tactical airlift landscape and will be a direct competitor to Lockheed Martin’s successful C-130J.

KC-390 technical details

The twin-turbofan-powered KC-390 can be refuelled in flight and can be used for in-flight or on-ground refuelling of other aircraft. The new 20t jet is technically advanced and has fly-by-wire technology, which optimises mission results thereby reducing pilot workload. It also helps increase the safety and capability for operating on short and rustic runways.

The military aircraft will have a cargo bay equipped with an aft ramp similar to Hercules, and capable of transporting a wide variety of cargo (weighing up to 19t), including armoured vehicles. It will be outfitted with state-of-the-art loading and unloading systems for handling cargo.

A study on the KC-390 (earlier named C-390) aircraft was presented at LAAD 2007. The research and development expenses of C-390 were $600m and shared among Embraer and various partners led by the FAB.

The twin-engine jet-powered Embraer KC-390 also integrates the technological solutions developed for Embraer 190 commercial aircraft. It is expected to carry 84 military personnel and the cargo cabin will be configured for transporting the wounded or sick, on medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) missions.

“The KC-390 transport jet is the largest and most complicated aircraft ever undertaken by Embraer.”

Developing the KC-390

The KC-390 is the largest and most complicated aircraft ever undertaken by Embraer. It will also be the Brazilian manufacturer’s first new military product in more than a decade. It is expected to be assembled at Embraer’s Gavião Peixoto plant in Brazil.

Considering the delays in the production of Airbus A400M military airlifter and the time taken by Lockheed Martin to achieve full operational capability with the C-130J, both Embraer and its competitors say that developing KC-390 will not be easy. Although the Brazilian government will be funding, any delay in the development would weaken Embraer’s defence growth.

In the next two years Embraer will complete definition studies, freeze the configuration, and make supplier decisions jointly with the FAB. Participation of other countries and companies in this programme is being evaluated in consultation with the FAB.

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EMB-314 Super Tucano / ALX Trainer / Light Attack, Brazil

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 15, 2009




Empty Weight


Super Tucano
Pratt and Whitney Canada PT6A-68A turboprop, 969 kW
Pratt and Whitney Canada PT6A-68/3 turboprop, 1,600shp
Hartzell five blade, constant speed, reversible pitch propeller.
Fuel Capacity


over 1,500km
6hrs 30mins
Cruising Speed
Maximum Speed
+7G and –3.5G
Maximum Take-off Weight, Clean
Maximum Take-off Weight Utility
Rate of Climb


Maximum External Load
Two wing-mounted 12.7mm machine guns
Other Weapons
General-purpose bombs and guided air-to-air and air-to-ground missiles


The EMB-314 Super Tucano is an enhanced version, with faster speed and higher altitude, of the EMB-312 Tucano trainer aircraft which is operational in the Air Forces of 17 countries. The prototype of the Super Tucano first flew in 1992. Both Tucano and Super Tucano have been developed and built by Embraer of Brazil.

In 1995, Embraer was awarded a contract to develop a variant of the Super Tucano, known as the ALX or light attack aircraft, for the Brazilian Air Force (FAB), optimised for the environmental conditions of the Brazilian Amazon. The ALX is capable of operating day and night missions from remote bases and unpaved runways with minimal ground support. The first production aircraft was completed in 1999.

In August 2001, the Brazilian Air Force awarded Embraer a contract for 76 Super Tucano / ALX aircraft with options for a further 23. 51 of these aircraft are two seater versions, designated AT-29, which are stationed at the Natal Air Force Base and replace the AT-26 Xavante advanced jet trainers which are approaching the end of their operational lives. The remaining 25 aircraft are the single seat A-29 ALX version.

“The main missions of the EMB-314, in addition to basic and advanced pilot training, are border patrol and counter-insurgency operations.”

One of the main missions of the aircraft is border patrol under the sistema de vigilancia da Amazonia (SIVAM) programme.

The first aircraft was delivered in December 2003. By September 2007, 50 aircraft had entered service. Final delivery of the aircraft is scheduled for 2009.

The main missions of the aircraft, in addition to basic and advanced pilot training, are border patrol and counter-insurgency operations.

The flight envelope of the aircraft is +7g and -3.5g. The aircraft’s small size, small visual and radar signatures, together with high speed and agility give the aircraft high survivability. Additional survivability features include armour protection and critical systems redundancy.

In August 2001, Embraer announced the signing of a contract with the Dominican Republic for ten Super Tucano aircraft, to be used for pilot training, internal security, border patrol and counter-narcotics trafficking missions. The order has since been reduced to eight aircraft, which are due for delivery in 2009.

In February 2005, Venezuela selected the EMB-314 Super Tucano. 12 aircraft were to be ordered, with a further 12 planned. The sale fell through because it was thought the USA would block the transfer of US-built components.

In December 2005, the Columbian Air Force placed a contract for 25 Super Tucano aircraft. The aircraft will be used for border patrol and internal security. The first five were delivered in December 2006. Deliveries concluded in August 2008. Elbit Systems has been contracted to supply the avionics suite.

In April 2008, the Chilean Air Force selected the EMB-314 Super Tucano, with a requirement for 12 aircraft. A contract for the 12 aircraft was signed in August 2008. Deliveries are scheduled top begin in the second half of 2009.


The all-glass cockpit is fully night vision goggle compatible. Brazilian AF ALX aircraft are equipped with avionics systems from Elbit Systems Ltd of Haifa, Israel, including a head-up display (HUD), advanced mission computer, navigation system and two 6in x 8in colour liquid crystal multi-function displays.

“The pilot is protected with Kevlar armour.”

The head-up display with 24° field of view and the advanced weapon delivery system are integrated through a MIL-STD-1553B data bus. The pilot is provided with a handson throttle and stick (HOTAS) control.

The pilot is protected with Kevlar armour and provided with a zero/zero ejection seat. The clamshell canopy, hinged at the front and rear and electrically activated, is fitted with a de-icing system and features a windshield capable of withstanding, at 300kt, the impact of a 4lb bird. A Northrop Grumman onboard oxygen generation system (OBOGS) is installed.


The aircraft is fitted with two central mission computers. The integrated weapon system includes software for weapon aiming, weapon management, mission planning and mission rehearsal. Onboard recording is used for post mission analysis.

The aircraft has five hardpoints for carrying weapons, and is capable of carrying a maximum external load of 1,500kg. The aircraft is armed with two wing-mounted 12.7mm machine guns with a rate of fire of 1,100 rounds a minute and is capable of carrying general-purpose bombs and guided air-to-air and air-to-ground missiles. Brazilian AF aircraft will be armed with the MAA-1 Piranha short-range infrared guided air-to-air missile from Orbita.

The two seat AT-29 is fitted with a forward-looking infrared AN/AAQ-22 SAFIRE turret on the underside of the fuselage. The SAFIRE thermal imaging system supplied by FLIR Systems is for targeting, navigation and target tracking. The system allows the aircraft to carry out night surveillance and attack missions.


The aircraft is equipped with an advanced laser inertial navigation and attack system, a global positioning system (GPS) and a traffic alerting and collision avoidance system (TCAS).

“The Super Tucano has five hardpoints for carrying weapons.”


The EMB-314 Super Tucano is powered by a PT6A-68A turboprop engine, developing 969kW. The power plant is fitted with automatic engine monitoring and control. The ALX aircraft has a more powerful engine than the EMB-314. The ALX’s Pratt and Whitney Canada PT6A-68/3 turboprop engine, rated at 1,600shp, drives a Hartzell five-bladed constant speed fully feathering reversible pitch propeller.

The fuel capacity is 695l, which gives a range of over 1,500km and endurance of 6hrs 30mins. The aircraft has a cruising speed up to 530km/h with a maximum speed of 560km/h.

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EMB-145 Erieye Airborne Early Warning and Control Aircraft, Brazil

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 15, 2009



The EMB-145 AEW&C is a derivative of the Embraer ERJ-145 regional jetliner airframe, modified with the integration of an airborne early warning radar and mission system.

The aircraft incorporates a reinforced airframe, new navigation and communication systems, an enhanced auxiliary power unit (APU), increased fuel capacity and a revised interior layout.

The EMB-145 AEW&C’s mission system is developed around the Ericsson ERIEYE active, phased-array pulse-Doppler radar and is integrated with an onboard command and control system. Electronic surveillance measures for monitoring communications and non-communications activities are also integrated with the system.

In 1997, Embraer was awarded a contract to develop and produce the ERIEYE-based EMB-145 AEW&C (designated R-99A) aircraft, together with another version of the same aircraft, the EMB-145 RS remote sensing (designated R-99B) variant, for the Brazilian Government’s SIVAM programme.

The Brazilian Air Force (FAB) ordered five AEW&C and three EMB-145 RS aircraft. The first AEW&C aircraft was delivered to the Brazilian Air Force in July 2002 and deliveries were completed in December 2003.

The Hellenic Air Force of Greece has ordered four EMB-145 AEW&C. The first was delivered in December 2003 and deliveries completed in May 2005. Entry into service is expected in mid-2008. Mexico has ordered one aircraft for border and coastline monitoring which was delivered in June 2004. Erieye radar systems have also been ordered by Sweden. In February 2005, Embraer signed a memorandum of understanding with India for the procurement of three systems.

In July 2008, a deal was finally signed, under which Embraer will supply three ERJ-145 aircraft and perform the modifications required to carry the active array antenna unit (AAAU) AEW&C system developed by India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). Deliveries are scheduled to begin in 2011.

A fleet of three aircraft is sufficient to sustain two airborne patrols around the clock for a limited time, or one airborne patrol with one aircraft on continuous ground alert for more than 30 days. Although capable of long endurance at normal patrol speeds, the EMB-145 has a high dash speed which contributes to survivability on patrol missions.

The EMB-145 AEW&C crew includes the pilot and co-pilot, five mission systems specialists and up to three reserve crew members. The aircraft is equipped with five or six mission operator consoles.


The all-glass cockpit is fitted with five displays – primary flight displays, multi-function displays and the engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS) – with multi-reversionary capabilities.

Avionic systems include full TACAS II (traffic alerting and collision avoidance), a ground proximity warning system (GPWS) and windshear detector. Dual digital air data computers drive the attitude and heading reference system (AHRS).

The pilot is provided with a head-up display particularly for landing guidance. The aircraft has two radio altimeters and an instrument landing system. A dual integrated computer controls the autopilot flight director (APFD), windshear detector and EICAS.


ERIEYE has been developed by Ericsson Microwave Systems. The system comprises an active, phased-array pulse-Doppler radar including integrated secondary surveillance radar and identification friend or foe (SSR/IFF), a comprehensive, modular command-and-control system, electronic support measures (ESM), communications and datalinks.

“ERIEYE comprises an active, phased-array pulse-Doppler radar.”

Rather than conventional rotodome antenna system, ERIEYE has a fixed, dual-sided and electronically scanned antenna mounted on top of the fuselage. This places much less demand on aircraft size and is designed for mounting on commuter-type aircraft. The ERIEYE is capable of 360° detection and tracking of air and sea targets over the horizon. The instrumented range is 450km and a typical detection range against a fighter aircraft size target is in excess of 350km.

The system uses advanced solid-state electronics, open-system architecture and ruggedised commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware, including general-purpose programmable workstations and full-colour LCD displays. The ERIEYE radar is already in service with the Swedish Air Force and is in series production for Brazil and other customers.

SIVAM programme

The SIVAM programme is designed to survey the entire Amazon Basin, an area considerably greater than that of Western Europe. Eight aircraft, five for surveillance and three for remote sensing are used for environmental protection, natural resources survey, border surveillance and support of sustained development in the Amazon region. The aircraft are operated by FAB from the Annapolis air force base.

The EMB-145 RS remote sensing aircraft is equipped with synthetic aperture radar, forward-looking infrared / television (FLIR/TV), multi-spectral scanner, COMINT communications intelligence suite, ELINT electronics intelligence system and an on-board recording and processing system. The RS aircraft will be capable of providing updated mapping information and imagery of the area.

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Rooivalk Attack Helicopter, south africa

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 15, 2009

Rooivalk Attack Helicopter


Key Data:

Pilot, weapon systems officer
Anti-armour, ground suppression, anti-helicopter, ferry, reconnaissance and counter-insurgency


Main Rotor to Tail Rotor
Main Rotor Diameter
Overall Height


Maximum Take-Off Weight
Minimum Operating Weight
Maximum Internal Fuel


2 x Makila 1K2
Twin-Engine Take-Off Rating
Single-Engine, Super Continence


Fast Cruise Speed
Maximum Sideways Speed
Maximum Rate of Climb, Twin-Engine Operation
Maximum Rate of Climb, Single-Engine Operation
Maximum Range, Internal Fuel
Maximum Range, External Fuel
Maximum Hover Ceiling (OGE) Out-of-Ground Effect
Maximum Hover Ceiling (IGE) In-Ground Effect
Excess Hover Power margin OGE, Sea-Level Anti-Tank Mission


8 or 16 anti-tank missiles, 7in SAL missile or HOT3
Air-to-air missiles, infrared guidance
38 or 76 70mm unguided rockets, variation of warheads
20mm F2 cannon, high-velocity ammunition (900 rounds)
Sighting Systems
Dual Helmet-Mounted Sight and Display (HMSD)
Stabilised nose-mounted sight with FLIR, TV, laser rangefinder, laser designator and autotracking
Total mission modes
Target acquisition
Flight control
Health and usage monitoring
Threat detection and control
Flight and fuel


The Rooivalk is a latest-generation attack helicopter from Denel Aviation of South Africa. The South African Air Force ordered 12 Rooivalk AH-2As, the first of which entered service in July 1999. The helicopters form part of No. 16 Squadron at Bloemspruit Air Force Base (near Bloemfontein).

The helicopters have been delivered and were to be fitted with the Mokopa ZT-6 anti-tank missile. A production order for the Mokopa was placed in March 2004. Delays with the development of the missile mean that it is unlikely to be integrated on the Rooivalk.

The helicopter is planned to achieve initial operational capability in late 2009 but full capability with an anti-tank missile is not currently planned.

Rooivalk cockpit

The cockpits are in stepped tandem configuration. The weapon systems officer (WSO) is seated in the front cockpit and the pilot is seated in the cockpit above and behind the WSO. The cockpits, which are fitted with crashworthy seats and are armour-protected, are equipped with hands-on collective And stick (HOCAS) controls.

A Thales Avionics TopOwl helmet-mounted sight display (HMSD) provides the crew with a head-up display of information for nap-of-the-earth flight (NOE). TopOwl incorporates an integrated measurement system for directing an articulated weapon such as the cannon, or air-to-air missile seeker heads. It has an integrated Gen IV image intensifier and FLIR capability and provides transition from day to night use at the push of a button.

The Rooivalk has a crash-resistant structure and is designed for stealth with low radar, visual, infrared and acoustic signatures.


The Rooivalk carries a comprehensive range of weaponry selected for the mission requirement, ranging from anti-armour and anti-helicopter missions to ground suppression and ferry missions. The aircraft can engage multiple targets at short and long range, utilising the nose-mounted cannon and a range of underwing-mounted munitions.

The 20mm, F2 dual-feed, gas-operated cannon fires high-speed (1,100m/s) ammunition at a firing rate of 740 rounds a minute. Two ammunition bins hold up to 700 rounds of ready-to-fire ammunition. The slew rate of the cannon is 90° a second. The cannon is chin-mounted on the helicopter.

The Rooivalk was to be armed with the Mokopa long-range anti-armour missile developed by the Kentron Division of Denel. Mokopa has a semi-active laser seeker head and is equipped with a tandem warhead. Range is over 8.5km. Rooivalk can also fire Hellfire or HOT 3 missiles.

“The Rooivalk is armed with the Mokopa long-range anti-armour missile.”

Rooivalk can carry four air-to-air missiles such as the Denel Aerospace Systems V3C Darter or MBDA (formerly Matra BAe Dynamics) Mistral.

The V3C Darter has an infrared seeker and a helmet-mounted sight for target designation. The Mistral, which has been selected by the South African Air Force, has an infrared seeker and range of up to 6km.

Rooivalk is equipped to fire 70mm folding-fin aerial rockets (FFAR), from the company Forges de Zeebrugge of Belgium, with a range of warheads, selectable according to the type of targets being engaged.


The Rooivalk’s electronic warfare suite is the fully integrated helicopter electronic warfare self-protection suite (HEWSPS), incorporating radar warning, laser warning and countermeasures dispensing system. The system is flight-line programmable and in-flight adaptable to match the threat library with the mission’s area of operation.

The radar warner features low-effective radiated power (ERP) / pulse Doppler radar detection beyond radar detection range, ultra broadband frequency coverage, high pulse density handling and internal instantaneous frequency measurement.

The laser warner provides broadband laser frequency coverage to detect and display rangefinding, designating and missile guidance laser threats.

The countermeasures dispensing system, which is operated in manual, semi-automatic or fully automatic mode, is charged with chaff and flare cartridges.

Fire control and observation

Target detection, acquisition and tracking are carried out using the nose-mounted stabilised sight, TDATS. The TDATS sight is equipped with a low-level television sensor, Forward-looking infrared (FLIR), autotracker, laser rangefinder and laser designator.

“The Rooivalk has a crash-resistant structure.”

Navigation and communications

The Rooivalk is equipped with an advanced navigation suite including Doppler radar velocity sensor, Thales Avionics eight-channel global positioning system, heading sensor unit and an air data unit.

The communications suite consists of two VHF/UHF transceivers with FM, AM and digital speech processing, one HF radio with frequency hopping and secure voice and data channels, and an IFF transponder.

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Tejas Light Combat Supersonic Fighter

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 15, 2009

Tejas Light Combat Supersonic Fighter





Empty Weight
Approximate Take-Off Weight
External Payload
More than 4,000kg


Prototype Aircraft
1 x GE F404-GE-F2J3 turbofan engine with afterburn
Production Aircraft
1 x GE F404-GE-IN20 turbofan engine, rated at 85kN


Maximum Speed
Mach 1.8
Maximum Altitude
+9g to –3.5g


Burst Firing Rate
50 rounds a second
Muzzle Velocity


The Tejas single-seat, single-engine, lightweight, high-agility supersonic fighter aircraft has been undergoing flight trials in preparation for operational clearance, and by mid 2005 had flown over 400 flights up to speeds of Mach 1.4. The Tejas light combat aircraft design and development programme is being led by the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) of the Indian Department of Defence with Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) as the prime industrial contractor.

The first LCA Demonstrator I aircraft made a maiden flight in January 2001. The LCA Demonstrator II first flew in June 2002. The second prototype vehicle (PV-II) made a maiden flight in December 2005 and the third in December 2006. The Indian government approved limited series production of 20 Tejas for the Air Force in April 2006.

First flight of the production aircraft was in April 2007. Tejas is planned to achieve initial operating capability (IOC) in 2008 and enter service in 2011. The trainer variant is scheduled for first flight in 2009.

“Tejas is a single-seat, single-engine, lightweight, high-agility supersonic fighter aircraft.”

Tejas, the smallest lightweight, multirole, single-engined tactical fighter aircraft in the world, is being developed as a single seat fighter aircraft for the Indian Air Force and also as a two-seat training aircraft. In November 2008, the Indian Air Force confirmed a requirement for 140 Tejas aircraft to equip seven squadrons.

The design of a carrier-borne Tejas in single-seat and two-seat versions with a modified nose, strengthened landing gear and an arrestor hook was granted approval in 1999. The carrier variant has retractable canards and adjustable vortex control.

The development programme for the carrier-borne versions was agreed by the Indian government in 2002 and the first flights of two prototype aircraft are scheduled for late 2009. The carrier variant may replace the fleet of Sea Harriers.

The Indian Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) is carrying out a conceptual design study of the ADA medium combat aircraft, which will be an advanced, stealthy version of the Tejas, to replace the Indian Air Force Jaguar and Mirage 2000 fleet. The medium combat aircraft has two engines with fully vectoring nozzles and no vertical or horizontal tail.

Delta planform design

The aircraft is of delta planform design with shoulder-mounted delta wings. The aircraft has a fin but no horizontal tail. Lightweight materials including aluminium and lithium alloys, titanium alloys and carbon composites have been used in the construction. The wing structure includes composite spares and ribs with a carbon fibre-reinforced plastic skin.

The National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), based in Bangalore, has designed and is responsible for the manufacture of the fin and the rudder and the construction of the aircraft fuselage.

Tejas cockpit

The aircraft is fitted with a night vision compatible glass cockpit with Martin Baker (UK) zero-zero ejection seats.

The cockpit has two 76mm×76mm colour liquid crystal multi-function displays developed by Bharat Electronics, a head up display developed by the Indian government-owned Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIO) in Chandigarh, a liquid crystal return-to-home-base panel and keyboard. The pilot also has a helmet-mounted display.

“Tejas is the smallest lightweight, multi-role, single-engine tactical fighter aircraft in the world.”

The aircraft has a quadruplex fly-by-wire digital automatic flight control. The navigation suite includes Sagem SIGMA 95N ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system with an integrated global positioning system.

The communications suite includes VHF to UHF radio communications with built-in counter-countermeasures, air-to-air and air-to-ground data links and a HAL information friend-or-foe interrogator. The cockpit is fitted with an environmental control system developed by Spectrum Infotech of Bangalore. The avionics suite has an integrated utility health-monitoring system.

Fighter weapons

The aircraft has eight external hardpoints to carry stores, with three under each wing, one on the centre fuselage and one installed under the air intake on the port side. A 23mm twin barrelled GSh-23 gun with a burst firing rate of 50 rounds a second and muzzle velocity of 715m a second is installed in a blister fairing under the starboard air intake.

The aircraft can be armed with air-to-air, air-to-ground and anti-ship missiles, precision-guided munitions, rockets and bombs. Electronic warfare, targeting, surveillance, reconnaissance or training pods can be carried on the hardpoints. Drop tanks can also be carried.

In October 2007, the Tejas successfully test-fired the R-73 air-to-air missile. The Vympel R-73 (Nato codename AA-11 Archer ) missile is an all-aspect short-range missile with cooled infrared homing. The missile can intercept targets at altitudes between 0.02km and 20km, g-load to 12g, and with target speeds of up to 2,500km/h.


The aircraft’s electronic warfare suite, developed by the Advanced Systems Integration and Evaluation Organisation (ASIEO) of Bangalore, includes a radar warning receiver and jammer, laser warner, missile approach warner, and chaff and flare dispenser.


The Electronics Research and Development Establishment and HAL have jointly developed the aircraft’s multi-mode radar. The radar has multiple target search and track-while-scan and ground-mapping modes of operation. The radar incorporates pulse Doppler radar with Doppler beam shaping, moving target indication and look-up / look-down capability. The radar is mounted in a Kevlar radome.

Turbofan engines

The prototype development aircraft are fitted with General Electric F404-GE-F2J3 turbofan engines with afterburn. Production aircraft will be fitted with one General Electric 85kN F404-GE-IN20 turbofan engine with full authority digital engine control. HAL placed an order for 24 F404-GE-IN20 engines in February 2007.

“Tejas can be armed with air-to-air, air-to-ground and anti-ship missiles, precision-guided munitions, rockets and bombs.”

LSP-2 (limited series production 2) will be the first aircraft to be fitted with the engine. Flight trials with the production engine began in June 2008.

It was planned that a new turbofan engine, the GTX-35VS Kaveri, under development by Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE), would be fitted to the production aircraft, but delays in development led to the purchase of the General Electric engines. Snecma-Larzac has been chosen as the industrial partner in the engine development.

The Kaveri engine develops 52kN dry power and 80.5kN with afterburn. The aircraft will use multi-axis thrust vectoring nozzles. The engine has Y-duct air intakes.

The aircraft has wing and fuselage tanks and an in-flight refuelling probe on the front starboard side. Drop tanks with a capacity up to 4,000l, can be carried on the inner and mid-board wing and fuselage centreline hardpoints.

The aircraft is fitted with a HAL gas turbine starter unit model GTSU-110.

Posted in Aircrafts of India | Leave a Comment »

HJT-36 Sitara Intermediate Jet Trainer

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 15, 2009






Maximum Take-Off Weight
Take-Off Weight, No External Payload
External Payload


Prototype Aircraft
Snecma Larsac 04-H20, rated 14.12kN
Series Production Aircraft
Saturn AL-55, rated 16.68kN
1,150l, 917kg


+7g to –2.5g
Maximum Operating Speed
960km/h, Mach 0.8
Maximum Level Speed
700km/h, Mach 0.58
Maximum Dive Speed
824km.h, Mach 0.69
Service Ceiling
3 hours


The intermediate jet trainer, designated HJT-36, is known in India as the Sitara (‘Star’). Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) started design work on the intermediate jet trainer in 1997. The concept was initially developed as a successor to the successful Kiran trainer for the Indian Air Force and Navy. HAL was awarded a contract in 1999 by the government of the Republic of India for the completion of development, testing and certification of two prototype IJT aircraft.

In February 2003, a contract for an initial 16 trainers for the Indian Air Force was placed. An Indian Air Force demand for 200 to 250 aircraft is envisaged with a market potential for higher numbers. Two prototype aircraft have been built. Over 280 flights have been completed by the aircraft. The HJT-36 is scheduled to enter service with the Indian Air Force in 2010.

Construction of the first prototype, the S3466, started in 2002 and it completed its first flight in March 2003. The second prototype aircraft, the S3474, completed its first flight in March 2004. The HJT-36 took part in the air display at Farnborough International Air Show in 2006. At the Aero-India air show in February 2007 in Bangalore, whilst taking part in the air display, the first prototype crashed on the runway when taking off.

The aircraft provides high-speed training for pilots entering level II training. The maximum operating speed is Mach 0.8 and the g-limits are from +7g to –2.5g. The service ceiling for the trainer is 12,000m (39,370ft).

HJT-36 design

The aircraft is of light alloy and composite construction, using a conventional low wing design with a sweptback wing of 9.8m span and 18° leading edge sweepback.

About a quarter of the aircraft’s line replaceable units are common with the HAL Tejas trainer aircraft.

The aircraft is fitted with hydraulically retractable tricycle-type landing gear. The single-wheeled main units retract inward and the twin nose wheel unit retracts forward.

Training cockpit

The cockpit uses a conventional tandem two-seat configuration with the trainee pilot forward and the instructor in the raised seat to the rear. The single-piece canopy gives the pilots good, all-round vision. The seats are lightweight zero-zero ejection seats, model K-36LT manufactured by Zvesda. The pilots have both conventional and manual flight controls.

“The HJT-36 is scheduled to enter service with the Indian Air Force in 2008.”

The aircraft has a full glass cockpit and digital avionics. The cockpit layout conforms to the style of current-generation combat aircraft.

Smiths Aerospace was contracted to supply the integrated avionics system, which includes open systems architecture mission computer, an attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) and air data computers.

The cockpits are equipped with active matrix liquid crystal displays supplied by Thales. The instructor’s station in the rear cockpit has a data entry display panel.

The avionics suite includes a head-up display and head-up display repeater unit supplied by Elop. The aircraft has cockpit communications and dual VHF and UHF communications.

HJT-36 weapons

The aircraft has five external hardpoints for carrying weapon systems. There is one centreline hardpoint under the fuselage and two weapon pylons under each wing for carrying rocket and gun pods and bombs. The maximum external payload is 1,000kg.

Turbofan engine

The ITJ engine is installed in the rear section of the fuselage and fitted with a bifurcated air intake. The aircraft carries 1,150l, 917kg of usable fuel in the fuselage and wing tanks.

The prototype aircraft are powered by a Snecma Larzac 04-H-20 turbofan non-afterburning engine developing 14.12kN.

“Two prototype HJT-36 Sitara aircraft have been built.”

In the summer of 2004, Hindustan Aeronautics announced the selection of the Saturn AL-55 turbofan engine rated at 16.68kN for the production series intermediate jet trainer. The AL-55 engine is being developed by NPO Saturn and produced at the Ufa Engineering Building Association (UMPO) in Russia.

An agreement between the governments of India and Russia for the licensed production of the AL-55I engine in India was reached in August 2005. The agreement included assistance in setting up the AL-55I production facilities at HAL’s aeroengineering centre at Koraput. The first AL-55I engine was delivered in June 2008.

The aircraft is fitted with a 9kW starter generator and two nickel cadmium 43Ah batteries.

Posted in Aircrafts of India | Leave a Comment »

CAEW – Conformal Airborne Early Warning Aircraft

Posted by Tra Tran Hung trên Tháng Bảy 15, 2009






2 × Rolls-Royce BR710C4-11 turbofan engines
Engine Power


Maximum Speed (Mmo)
Mach 0.885
9 hours at mission radius of 185km, altitude 12,500m
Range at Mach 0.80

Mission Systems:

Mission Stations
6 × multi-purpose operator stations
CAEW and Control System
EL/W-2085 Radar
1-2 GHz and 2- 4GHz
Satellite Communications
Satcoms Frequency Band
Ku band, 12.5GHz-18GHz


The Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) conformal airborne early warning and control (CAEW) aircraft was first unveiled in public at the UK’s 2008 Farnborough Air Show. The prime contractor, system developer and system integrator for the CAEW is Elta Systems Ltd, a subsidiary of IAI.

The CAEW aircraft is based on the G550 airframe from Gulfstream Aerospace of the USA. The operationally proven G550 CAEW aircraft is the third generation of airborne early warning and control systems developed by IAI Elta since the mid-1980s.

Gulfstream was awarded a contract for four (plus two options) G550 modified aircraft in August 2003. First flight of the modified aircraft was in May 2006 and it was delivered to Elta for the installation of the mission systems in September 2006. The first and second CAEW aircraft were delivered to the Israel Air Force in February and May 2008 and since then have been in operational use.

“The CAEW provides improved performance in terms of higher operating altitude, longer range and increased time on station.”

The Singapore Air Force has also ordered a number of CAEW aircraft to be delivered during 2009 and 2010.

The CAEW provides improved performance in terms of higher operating altitude, longer range and increased time on station. The main AEW performance advantages result from the capability to point the radar beams in any direction in space at any time, with the beam’s parameters controlled by the radar computer. The CAEW aircraft is based on the Gulfstream G550 airframe, which is an upgraded variant of the Gulfstream V-SP with improved aerodynamic performance. The aircraft is manufactured at the Gulfstream business jet production centre in Savannah, Georgia, USA and transferred to IAI Elta Systems Ltd in Ashdod, Israel.

Compared to the original G550, the CAEW redesigned aircraft has an increased zero-fuel weight, a modified structure, additional cabling, three (instead of one) power generators and a liquid cooling system to accommodate the mission equipment. One particular specification is the aircraft’s low drag aerodynamic profile.

IAI’s Bedek Aviation is contracted to provide the maintenance and logistic support for the Israeli CAEW aircraft.

CAEW cockpit

The baseline G550 aircraft uses a Honeywell Primus Epic avionics suite and the two-man flight deck has a Gulfstream PlaneView cockpit. The CAEW flight deck provides the pilot with real-time 360°, three-dimensional AEW information.

Mission systems

The AEW system has six multi-purpose, Windows-based, operator stations with 24in colour monitors that are installed in the rear half of the main cabin. The forward section of the main cabin behind the cockpit accommodates the electronics.

The Elta AEW system provides rapid target acquisition and target information with total 360° coverage. Avoiding host aircraft obstruction is achieved by using the placement of a number of conformal antennae combined with dynamic beam allocation to the targets. The multiple conformal antennae provide the coverage without the need for a large mushroom-shaped radar system installed on comparable aircraft.

The aircraft is equipped with the Elta EL/W-2085 AEW system which includes a phased array airborne early warning radar, an identification friend or foe system, electronic support measures (ESM), electronic intelligence (ELINT) and communications intelligence (COMINT) systems.

The system is highly automated and uses advanced multi-sensor data fusion techniques to cross-correlate data generated by all four sensors – the radar, IFF, ESM / ELINT and CSM / COMINT. The data is combined with an automatically initiated active search by one sensor for specific targets that have been detected by other sensors.

“The Elta AEW system provides rapid target acquisition and target information with total 360° coverage.”

The phased array airborne early warning radar, an active electronic steering array (AESA), operates in L and S bands (1GHz to 2GHz and 2GHz to 4GHz) and provides 360° azimuthal coverage. The system has high-accuracy three-dimensional tracking, low false-alarm rate, flexible and high target revisit time, electronic counter-countermeasures and programmable search and track modes of operation.

The modes of operation include track initiation, extended detection range mode with long dwell time, and target verification. When a target has been identified as a priority the radar switches to a high scan rate tracking mode with optimised beam to target characteristics.

The forward-facing hemisphere radar array and the weather radar are mounted in the nose radome. The lateral arrays are housed in conformal radomes along the sides of the forward fuselage. The radome located on the tailcone houses the aft facing hemispherical array.

The information friend or foe system uses the radar’s receive / transmit modules and antennae and provides target interrogation, decoding, target detection, location and target tracking.

The electronic support measures and electronic intelligence systems use multiple narrow and wideband receivers. The ESM / ELINT also provides the radar warning receiver function and supports the aircraft’s self-protection system. The antenna pods are mounted under the wingtips. An electronic support measures antenna is mounted in a fairing above the nose cone which houses the weather radar. The direction finding function uses differential time of arrival.

The automated communications intelligence system covers the high (HF) to very-high (VHF) frequency bands from 3MHz to 3GHz.


The aircraft’s communications suite provides network-centric operations capability and is interoperable with air force, navy and ground force assets and includes U/VHF, HF, satellite communications, voice over internet protocol (VoIP), secure voice, secure data link and intercom.

“The CAEW aircraft is powered by two Rolls-Royce BR710C4-11 turbofan engines.”

The aircraft is fitted with a robust jam-resistant full duplex EL/K-189 satellite communications and datalink. The satellite communications operates at Ku band, 12.5GHz to 18GHz. The satellite antenna dish and one planar array are housed in the vertical tail surface top fairing and another planar array is housed in a ventral blister radome. The antennae are dual axis stabilised with pointing capability. The carrier link can provide voice, data and compressed video.

The aircraft can be fitted with the data link specified by the customer country.

CAEW countermeasures

The aircraft is fitted with an integrated self protection suite with 360° radar warning receiver (RWR), missile approach warning system (MAWS), chaff and flare decoy dispensers and directed infrared countermeasures (DIRCM).


The aircraft is powered by two Rolls-Royce BR710C4-11 turbofan engines rated at 68.4kN and fitted with full authority digital engine control (FADEC). The engines are fitted at the rear of the fuselage. The integral wing tanks have a fuel capacity of 23,400l and the fuel system is equipped with an automatic fuel distribution system to accommodate the changing fuel load during flight.

The aircraft is equipped with a Hamilton Sundstrand electrical power generation system and the CAEW aircraft also has power generators mounted on the engines providing 240kW of power.

Gulfstream was responsible for the design and supply of the liquid cooling system to accommodate the high power consumption of the airborne electronics.

Posted in Aircrafts of Israel | Leave a Comment »